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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two functions of the pancreas
Produce digestive enzymes
Islet of Langerhans produce insulin to control blood sugar levels
What are islets of langerhans?
Cells found throughout the pancreas.
Alpha, beta, and delta cells
Degeneration leads to diabetes mellitus
Alpha cells function
secrete glucagon which raises blood glucose
Beta cells function
secrete insulin which lowers blood glucose
Delta cells function
Secrete somatostatin which inhibits secretion of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone from the pituitary
Hypofunctioning endocrine
Diminished levels of insulin-results in diabetes
Hyperfunctioning endocrine
Too much insulin (hyperinsulinism) can result in lowering of blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
Endocrine function
To secrete insulin and glucagon, which regulates carbohydrate metabolism
Exocrine function
To secrete pancreatic juice and contribute to digestion of all foods to the small intestines.
Pancreatic juice contains:
sodium bicarbonate, trypsinogen, amylase and lipase
Pancreas sonographically
Isoechoic or hypoechoic compared to the liver, homogenous (due to the stomach and duodenum)
What is the pancreas?
Non encapsulated, retroperitoneal structure that lies in the anterior pararenal space between the duodenal loop and the splenic hilum
Pancreas measurements:
Moves 2-8 cm w/ respiration
Measures about 12.5-15 cm
Pitfalls in imgaing the pancreas
Gas in the 2nd or 3rd duodenal loops
Retroperitoneal fibrosis
Horseshoe kidney
Lymph Nodes
Collateral Veins
Hypoechoic head and uncinate process
Fatty Infiltration
With aging and obesity, the pancreas becomes more echogenic
Can be reversed with weight reduction
Causes of fatty infiltration
Aging, obesity, chronic pancreatitis, viral infection, diet, steriods, cystic fibrosis, diabetes
What is agenesis?
Absence of the body and tail of the pancreas. Has been reported with hypertrophy of the remaining head.
Epithelium lined true cysts
Congenital in origin and represent abnormal development in the ducts.
Mult. cysts ranging in size from microscopic-5cm
Congenital cysts are assoc. with:
Cystic diseases of the liver, spleen, and kidneys
Von Hipple-Lindaus syndrome
Cystic fibrosis (definition)
Affects the body's ability to move salt and water in/out of cells. Causes the lungs and pancreas to secrete thick mucus-which blocks and prevents functions
Cystic fibrosis (findings)
Exocrine dysfunction, atrophy, marked fibrosis, fatty replacement, cysts secondary to obstruction of the small ducts
Cystic fibrosis (sonographically)
Increased echogenicity due to fibrosis or fatty replacement
Pancreatic duct less seen
HIGH amylase