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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Product of hmg breakdown
The liver conjugates bili.
excreted by the biliary system
Relates to the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, biliary tree
Total Bilirubin
Conjugated + unconjugated
Removing the protein albumin-makes the bili. soluble/conjugated
Direct Bilirubin
after conjugation when bili. is refined and ready to use
Albumin is present, unrefined, insoluble
If Direct Bilirubin Increases
The biliary system failed to excrete it
Obstructive jaundice-blocked biliary system
If Indirect Bilirubin Increases
The liver isn't conjugating
Decreased liver function, overproduction of bili.
System hemolysis, drop in hmg
ALP (alkaline phosphatase)
Increases in biliary obstruction, pregnancy, bone production
AST (aspartate aminotransferase)
nonspecific for liver disease
ALT (slanine aminotransferase)
present in high amounts
more specific than AST
Normal levels rules out hepatic origin to liver disease
increases in hepatocellular disease and obstructive disease
more sensitive than ALP in obstructive disease
Normal during pregnancy and growth spurts
Can be elevated with alcholism
ALP and GGTP increase in hepatobiliary disease
in all metabolizing cells
Increases in all types of cell damage
Unspecific for liver disease
high in fetal development
After birth-hepatocellular carcinoma
Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Indicates cancer but not which type
Amylase and Lipase
Use together for staging
Produced by pancreas, kidneys, salivary glands
Increase with pancreatitis, renal disease, salivary gland disease
Lipase increases later and lasts longer
Very specific for renal disease
BUN blood, urea, nitrogen
Increase indicates renal failure
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Indicates prostate cancer
Sedimentation Rate
Rate that RBCs settle in uncoagulated blood
gradually diminishing rate-good
Hematocrit (HCT)
volume of red blood in 100 mL
Decrease w/ bleed outside of vascular system
Prothrombin Time (PT)
indentifies coagulation
Long times are abnormal
Coumadin and heparin prolong PT