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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Most common renal tumor (85%)
2:1 males
Mult. bilateral tumors
60-70 yr old
Renal adenomas are considered the benign counterpart
Renal Cell Carcinoma (symptoms)
Increased with Von Hipple Lindau and dialysis
Symptoms: hematuria, weight loss, fatique, fever, pain, mass, htn
Renal Cell Carcinoma (songraphically)
Cystic complex mass
Calcification, hypervascularity, irregular margins, displaced pyramids
May invade parenchyma (renal shape), renal vein (thrombosis), IVC (thrombus)
Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Most common renal collecting system tumor
90% malignancies, occur in renal pelvis, ureters, bladder
Papillomas are considered the benign counterpart
Transitional Cell Carcinoma (symptoms, sonographically)
Hematuria, weight loss, fatigue, fever, pain
Mult or single
Solid ill-defined hypoechoic mass
Renal Lymphoma
Metastases from non-Hodgkins and Hodgkins lymphoma
Pain, hematuria
Non-specific enlargement of one or both kidneys, hypoechoic mass
Wilm's Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
Most common solid renal mass in childhood
Rare in newborns
Increases at 2 yrs old, 50% occur before age 3
Assoc. w/ Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, omphalocele, hemihypertrophy
Wilm's Tumor (symptoms, sonographically)
Palapble ab mass, ab pain, nausea, vomitting, hematuria
Unilateral, heterogeneous, extends into renal vein or IVC
Very common
acute renal obstruction-acute nephrosis-acute nephropathy
Dilation of pelvicalcyeal collectin system from obstruction. Seperation of sinus echogenicity by an anechoic urine collection
Pelvocaliectasis-non obstructive dilation
Hydronephrosis (causes, caution)
Bladder tumors, cervical cancer, calculi, pregnancy, UPJ, PVJ
*full bladder can mimic it
Non-Obstructive Hydronephrosis
Caused by reflux, infection, polyuria, atrophy
Look for ureteral jets
Kidney inflammation
Increased cortical echoes
Glomerulo-normal size
Acute Interstitial-bigger
Can cause focal glomerulosclerosis and decreased renal function
Normal or big kidneys
Echogenic parenchyma and cortex
Nephropathy-Sickle Cell
Common w/ sickle cell pts
Glomerulonephritis, thrombosis, papillary necrosis, hematuria
Kidneys appear enlarged
Caused by uncontrolled hypertension
Progressive renal damge, azotemia, chronic renal failure
Single or bilateral small kidneys
Hyperechoic scars from pyolonephritis and lobar infarction
Papillary Necrosis
Death of papillary tissue from ischemia
Renal transplants (wks to mths after), sickle cell, diabetes
Papillary Necrosis (symptoms, sonographically)
Hematuria, pain, dysuria, htn, acute renal failure
One or more fluid spaces at the corticomedullary junction w/ pyramids
Fatty tumor w/ smooth muscle and thick walled vessels
Hypo, benign
Echogenicity equal or greater than sinus
Found in renal cortex
Adenomas and Onocytomas
No symptoms
Well defined masses with clear borders and calcifications
Onocytomas-wheel spoke appearance
Renal Failure
Pre: hypoperfusion of KY
Renal: Parenchymas disease
Post: outflow obstructions (US is helpful w/ post)
Renal Failure (sonographically)
Differentiate between obstruction and parenchymal disease
Note dilation and level
Chronic-thin cortex wall
Renal Transplant
Usually R of pelvis w/in the peritoneum
Blood supply comes from external iliacs
Transplant Rejection
Acute:first wks after surgery
Chronic: mts-yrs after
Acute Tubular Necrosis
Most common cause of acute reversible renal failure
Related to debris w/in the collection tubules
Acute tubular necrosis (ischemic)
Caused by hypotension, shock, trauma, sepsis
Normal sized kidney
Acute tubular necrosis (toxic)
Caused by drugs, metal, solvent exposure
Enlarged echogenic kidney
Cyclosporine Toxicity
Drug used to treat rejection
Reaction can cause renal failure
Canidida Albican
Most common fungal agent affecting the urinary tract
Fungal balls, echogenic, non-shadowing masses
Schistosomiasis Haematobium
Most common agent affecting the urinary tract
Worms enter via skin, carried through blood via portals to liver
Worms leave eggs in the bladder wall and ureter
Schistosomiasis Haematobium (sonographically)
Kidney appears normal until later stages
Pseudoturbecles develop in teh ureter, bladder and lining
Thicken and calcify
Echinococcus (Hydatid Cyst)
3 layers: peri, ecto, endo
Pt. asymptomatic until cyts rupture