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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A Calorie is a measurement of __________.
energy
A calorie is the amount of _______ required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree C.
heat
Food energy is measured in __________.
calories
_________________ (sugars and polysaccharides) are the quickest, most readily available energy source for the body.
carbohydrates
The body does not store __________ __________ for the production of proteins, which are found particularly in muscles but also in all cells of the body.
amino acids
The unit molecule found in proteins are called __________ _________.
amino acids
The name "amino acid" refers to the fact that the molecule has two functional groups: an __________ group and an __________ group.
amino
acid
A __________ bond joins two amino acids together.
peptide
A __________ contains only two amino acids, but a __________ can contain hundreds of amino acids.
dipeptide
polypeptide
T or F
The secondary structure of polypeptides is the final three-dimensional shape of the polypeptide.
False-it is the tertiary structure
Pigment of red blood cells responsible for oxygen transport?
hemoglobin
Proteins have both __________ and ___________ functions in the human body.
structural
enzymatic
Hemoglobin is a complex protein with a __________ structure.
quaternary
________ ________ are the unit molecules for peptides and polypeptides.
amino acids
A quaternary structure:two or more linked __________.
polypeptides
A nucleotide has three unit molecules: list them
a phosphate group
a 5-carbon sugar
nitrogen base
When nucleotides join, they form a __________ __________ strand.
nucleic acid
The genes we inherit determine the types of __________ we can produce in our cells.
proteins
Both DNA and RNA are __________ of __________;only ________ is double-stranded. _______ makes up the genes, and along with RNA, controls __________ __________.
polymers of nucleotides
DNA
DNA
Protein synthesis
abbreviation for adenosine triphosphate
ATP
abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid
DNA
abbreviation for ribonucleic acid
RNA
_______ stores energy in the body, _______ is a dietary source of energy, and _______ is fiber in the diet.
Glycogen
starch
cellulose
A fat contains two types of unit molecules: __________ and ________ __________.
glycerol
fatty acids
Fatty acids are either __________ or __________.
saturated
unsaturated
Saturated or unsaturated fatty acids are mostly found in vegetable oils and account for the liquid nature of these oils.
unsaturated
Steroids are __________ with a structure that differs entirely from that of fats.
lipids
In __________ __________, the individual is unable to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream and suffers from heart attacks.
familial hypercholesterolemia
Lipids include _______ fats (long-term, energy-storage molecules that form from ________ and __________ __________ _________) and the related ____________, which have a charged group.
nonpolar
glycerol
three fatty acids
phospholipids
Muscles contain _________ that account for muscles' ability to contract.
proteins
__________ are huge biomolecules that sometimes have mainly a structural function.
proteins
Some proteins function as __________, necessary contributors to the chemical workings of the cell and, therefore, of the body.
enzymes
Enzymes are organic catalysts that speed __________ _________.
chemical reactions
__________ are molecules that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions.
acids
__________ are molecules that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions.
bases
If this pH value drops below 7.35, the person is said to have __________;if it rises above 7.45, the condition is called __________.
acidosis
alkalosis
The prescence of __________ helps keep the pH constant.
buffers
__________ are polymers or chains of unit molecules joined together.
biomolecules
Glucose, fructose, and galactose are three common forms of ____________.
monosaccharides
Degradation of a disaccharide is a __________ reation because water is used to split a bond.
hydrolysis
Cells use ________ as their primary energy source.
glucose
Sucrose, which is ordinarily derived from sugarcane and sugar beets, is commonly know as __________ __________.
table sugar
A ______________ is a carbohydrate that contains a large number of monosaccharide molecules.
polysaccharide
Three polysaccharides are common in animals and plants: __________, ________, ________.
glycogen, starch, and cellulose.
If the blood contains more glucose, it spills over into the urine, signaling that the condition __________ exists.
diabetes
_________ is the storage form of glucose in humans.
glycogen
Fatty acids can be __________ (no double bonds) or ____________ (have double bonds).
saturated
unsaturated
When a fat molecule forms, ______ ______ _______ combine with __________ and three water molecules are produced.
three fatty acids
glycerol
Atoms can be different, as when oxygen atom joins with two hydrogen atoms to form water. When the atoms are different, a __________ results.
compound
An ___(magnetic resonance imaging) is the opposite of an Xray and is more useful for imaging ______ ______.
MRI
soft tissues
___ (positron emission tomography) is a variation on CAT scanning.
PET
During ___(computerized axial tomography) scans, X rays are sent through the body at various angles, and a computer uses the X-ray information to form a series of cross sections.
CAT
because the water molecule has charged atoms, it is called a ______ molecule.
polar
Polar molecules are similar to magnets in that they have _______ and _______ poles.
positive
negative
_______ bonds cause water molicules to be cohesive---to cling together.
hydrogen
Without _________ bonding betwwen molecules, water would easily boil and easily freeze, making life impossible.
hygrogen
______, ______, and ______ are compounds that dissociate;that is, they ionize in water.
salts
acids
bases
Salts, acids, and bases are _________ that dissociate;that is, they _________ in water.
compounds
ionize
Substances that break apart and release ions when put into water are called __________, since the ions can coduct an electrical current.
electrolytes
The __________ balance in the blood and body tissues is important for good health.
electrolyte
A carbon atom has six protons and six neutrons; therefore its atomic weight is ______ atomic mass units. The atomic number of carbon is six; therefore, it has ____ protons and _____ electrons.
12
6
6
The atomic weight, or mass, of each atom is noted in the periodic table __________ the atomic symbol.
beneath
The subscript stands for the _______ _______ and the superscript stands for the ________ ________.
atomic number
atomic weight
Certain isotopes, called __________ __________, are unstable---they break apart to form smaller atoms and release radiation in the process.
radioactive isotopes
A central nucleus contains the __________ and __________, while the __________ are located outside the nucleus in shells.
protons
neutrons
electrons