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44 Cards in this Set

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Stimuli for EPO:
hypoxemia, left-shifted OBC, high altitude
Unconjugated bilirubin:
end product of heme degradation in macrophage
Microcytic anemias:
defects in the synthesis of Hb (heme + globin chains)
increase macrophage iron stores
Sideroblastic anemia:
defect in heme synthesis in the mitochondria; ringed sideroblasts
Pyridoxine deficiency:
INH most common cause
Intestinal conjugase:
inhibited by phenytoin
Monoglutamate reabsorption:
inhibited by alcohol and oral contraceptives
folate (most common) and vitamin B12 deficiency
Thymidylate synthase:
inhibited by 5-fluorouracil
Dihydrofolate reductase:
inhibited by methotrexate, trimethoprim
Vitamin B12:
odd chain fatty acid metabolism
Increase in methylmalonic acid:
most sensitive test for vitamin B12 deficiency
Extravascular hemolysis:
macrophage phagocytosis; unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Intravascular hemolysis:
decrease serum haptoglobin; hemoglobinuria
Hereditary spherocytosis:
intrinsic defect, extravascular hemolysis. mutation in ankyrin in cell membrane. Increase RBC osmotic fragility
Aplastic crisis:
parvovirus induced
loss of anchor for DAF. Intrinsic defect, intravascular hemolysis
Sickle cell anemia:
intrinsic defect, extravascular hemolysis
Howell-Jolly bodies:
sign of splenic dysfunction
G6PD deficiency:
intrinsic defect, primarily intravascular hemolysis. oxidant damage with heinz bodies and bite cells
PK (Pyruvate kinase) deficiency:
intrinsic defect, extravascular hemolysis. increase 2, 3-BPG right-shifts OBC
Immune hemolytic anemia:
autoimmune warm type most common cause
extravascular hemolysis; spherocytosis
intravascular or extravascular hemolysis
intravascular or extravascular hemolysis
most important marker of immune hemolytic anemia
intravascular hemolysis correlates with fever spikes
Hereditary spherocytosis:
Defect in ankyrin; Extravascular hemolysis. Increased osmotic fragility; Rx with splenectomy
Hereditary elliptocytosis:
Defect in spectrin
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria:
Loss of anchor for DAF in myeloid stem cell; Complement destruction; Intravascular hemolysis. Pancytopenia
Sickle Cell Anemia:
Valine substitution for glutamic acid B-globin chain; Extravascular hemolysis
G6PD deficiency:
Deficiency GSH causes oxidant damage to Hb and RBC membrance; Intravascular hemolysis. Heinz body
Pyruvate kinase deficiency:
decrease ATP synthesis. Increase 2,3-BPG right shifts OBC; Dehydrated RBCs with thorny projections (echinocytes)
Acute blood loss:
loss of whole blood. decrease Hb, Hct, RBC count
Warm AIHA:
IgG with or without C3b; Extravascular hemolysis. Positive direct Coombs' test; SLE most common cause
Cold AIHA:
IgM with C3b; Extravascular or intravascular hemolysis. Association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae; EBV
Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia:
Drug hapten, Immunocomplex, Autoantibody
Drug Hapten:
penicillin extravascular hemolysis
quinidine intravascular hemolysis
methyldopa extravascular hemolysis
Alloimmune hemolytic anemia:
Hemolytic transfusion reaction ABO and Rh HDN; Positive direct Coombs' test
Micro and macroangiopathic hemolytic anemia:
Calcific aortic stenosis; Chronic hemoglobinuria causes iron deficiency
Rupture of RBCs corresponds with fever