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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 types of epithelial tissue in the integumentary system:
1. Epidermis
2. Glands
3. Hairs
4. Nails
Muscle in the integumentary system:
Arrector pili
Nervous tissue in the integumentary system:
Sensory nerve endings
Connective tissue in the integumentary system:
What is the function of skin?
Provides mechanical protection to resist abrasion
What type of tissue is the epidermis?
Stratified squamous
4 layers of the epidermis:
1. Stratum corneum
2. Stratum granulosum
3. Stratum spinosum
4. Stratum basale
What is stratum corneum made of?
Dead cells filled with keratin
What is stratum granulosum made of?
Ketohyaline granules
Fillagrin (concrete)/keratin matrix (ruds)
What connects the cells in the stratum spinosum?
What does stratum basale look like?
Basophilic due to lots of ribosomes.
2 Types of skin:
What makes thick skin thick?
If it has a stratum corneum >50 cells thick.
What makes thin skin thin? How is it different from thick?
-If it has a stratum corneum <50 cells thick.
-Has hair, arrector pili mm, and sebaceous glands
What is Psoriasis?
Hyperproliferation of keratinocytes such that the epidermis is 2x as normal thick.
How are epithelial keratinocytes linked?
Via desmosomes
What are the core proteins in the desmosomes linking keratinocytes?
What is the plaque on the inside of linked keratinocytes made of?
-Plaque proteins
What plaque proteins are on the inner side of the cell membrane adjacent to IFs?
-Desmoplakin I/II
-Plakophilin 1
What is Bullous skin disease?
An acquired autoimmune disease where you get Abs against cell-cell or cell-matrix attachment proteins
What is the symptom of bullous skin disease?
2 Types of Bullous skin disease
-Pemphigus foliaceus
-Pemphigus vulgaris
What is the Ab in Pemphigus foliaceus?
Anti-desmoglein 1
What is the Ab in Pemphigus vulgaris?
Anti-Desmoglein 1 and 3
What is the epidermis anchored to? How is it anchored?
Its basement membrane - via hemidesmosomes; interdigitates with the dermis.
What type of dermal-epidermal junction is seen in thick skin?
pegs and sockets - rocky
What type of dermal-epidermal junction is seen in thin skin?
Ridges and grooves - more rolling
Layers of the Dermis:
What is the papillary layer like?
Loose, connective tissue
What is the reticular layer like?
Dense, irregular connective tissue
3 components of the plaque that anchors the epidermis to its basement membrane:
-Lamina lucida
-Lamina densa
What is the Plaque made of?
BP230 Ag and Plectin
Transmembrane molecules:
BP180 Ag and a6b2 Integrin
What is Lamina lucida made of?
What is Lamina Densa made of?
What is Bullous pemphigoid?
Anti-BP180 (in the plaque) develops and causes subepidermal blisters.
What is the function of Melanocytes?
Protection against UV radiation
Where are melanocytes located?
Stratum basale
What are melanocytes derived from?
Neural crest
What cells confer the protective nature of skin against microorganisms?
Langerhans dendritic cells.
Where are Langerhans cells located?
In superficial layers of the epidermis
How does skin minimize heat loss?
How does it facilitate heat loss?
Minimize: vasoconstrict
Facilitate: vasodilate
Where are Eccrine sweat glands found?
Most areas of the body especially thick skin
What do eccrine glands produce?
What is the structure of eccrine sweat glands?
Simple, coiled, and tubular
What type of cells make up the
-Secretory part
-Duct part
of eccrine sweat glands?
Secretory: simple cuboidal
Duct: stratified cuboidal
What innervates eccrine sweat glands?
Sympathetic cholinergic nerves
What is the mode of secretion at eccrine sweat glands?
Merocrine - exocytosis
Where are hair and arrector pili muscles located?
IN thin skin
3 components of a hair structure:
-Hair follicle
-Hair bulb
-Dermal papilla
What is the dermal papilla?
Highly vascular tissue that projects into the hair bulb.
What innervates arrector pili muscles?
What type of muscle are arrector pili muscles?
Where are Sebaceous glands?
Associated with hairs - NOT in thick skin.
What do sebaceous glands produce? When?
Sebum - starts at puberty
What is the mode of secretion from sebaceous glands?
Holocrine - the entire cell is shed.
What is Acne vulgaris?
An increase in sebum production which blocks the hair follicle orifice
What are 4 types of receptors in the skin?
1. Free nerve endings
2. Pacinian corpuscles
3. Meissner's corpuscles
4. Ruffini endings