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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard (1079—1142) Famed French theologian, logician, and university lecturer.
Absolutism Form of government in which one body, usually the monarch, controls the right to make war, tax, judge and coin money. The term was often used to refer to the state monarchies in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe.
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism The mid-twentieth-century school of art based in New York that included Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, and Franz Kline. It emphasized form, color, gesture, and feeling instead of figurative subjects.
acid rain
acid rain Precipitation laced with heavy doses of sulfur, mainly from coal-fired plants.
African National Congress
African National Congress (ANC) Multiracial organization founded in 1912 whose goal was to end racial discrimination in South Africa.
Afrikaners Descendants of the original Dutch settlers of South Africa, formerly referred to as Boers.
AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. AIDS first appeared in the 1970s and has developed into a global health catastrophe,. it is spreading most quickly in developing nations in Africa and Asia.
Akhenaten The fourteenth-century B.C.E. pharaoh who developed a sun-oriented religion and ultimately damaged Egypt’s position in the ancient world.
Alexander (356—323 B.c.E.) The Macedonian general who conquered northwest Asia Minor, and Persia, and built an empire that stretched as far east as the Indus River.
Allied Powers
Allied Powers The World War I coalition of Great Britain, Ireland, Belgium, France, Italy, Russia, Portugal, Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, and Romania.
al-Qaeda The radical Islamic organization founded in the late 1980s by former meqahedin who had fought against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. AI-Qaeda carried out the 9/11 terrorist attacks and is responsible as well for attacks in Africa, Southeast Asia, Europe, and the Middle East.
Amnesty International Nongovernmental organization formed in 1961 to defend “prisoners of conscience—those detained for their beliefs, color, sex, ethnic origin, language, or religion.
Anabaptists Swiss Protestant movement that began in 1521 and insisted that only adults could be baptized Christians. The movement’s first generation, who had been baptized as infants according to Catholic practice, was ‘re baptized,” hence the name.
Anarchism The social and political movement that began in the mid-nineteenth century and advocated the destruction of the state through violence and terrorism.
Apartheid The racial segregation policy of the Afrikaner-dominated South African government. Legislated in 1948 by the Afrikaner National Party, it existed in South Africa for many years.
aqueducts Engineering system that brought water from the mountains down to Roman cities.
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225—1274) Italian Dominican monk and theologian whose intellectual style encouraged the study of ancient philosophers and science as complementary to theology.
Arians The fourth-century followers of a priest named Anus, who rejected the idea that Christ could be equal with God.
Asiatic Society A cultural organization founded in 1784 by British Orientalists who lauded native culture but believed in colonial rule.
Assyrians A Semitic-speaking people that emerged around 2400 B.C.E. in northern Mesopotamia. Their highly militarized empire dominated Near-Eastern politics for close to two thousands years.
Atlantic system
astrolabe An ancient navigational instrument, thought to have been invented in 150 B.C.E., that was used to find latitude while at sea.
Atlantic system A system of trade and expansion that linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. It emerged in the sixteenth century in the wake of European voyages across the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Augustine (c. 354—397) One of the most influential Christian theologians of all time, Saint Augustine described his conversion in his autobiographical Confessions and formulated new aspects of Christian theology in On the City of God.
Augustus (63 B.C.E.—14 CE,) The grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar and first emperor of the Roman empire.
Auschwitz-Birkenau The Nazi concentration camp in Poland that was designed to systematically murder Jews and gypsies. Between 1942 and 1944 over one million people were killed in Auschwitz-Birkenau.