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19 Cards in this Set

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Describe the path of pancreatic enzymes starting at the acini:
Acini to intercalated duct to intralobular duct to interlobular duct to pancreatic duct to duodenum
The endocrine pancreas consists of:
The Islets of Langerhans
What hormones induce the secretion of pancreatic juices?
Secretin and Cholecystokinin
To prevent autodigestion, what does the acini cells produce?
They secrete proteolytic inhibitors
What type of cells bridge the gap between the ducts and acinar cells?
Centroacinar Cells
What are the centroacinar cells responsible for doing? What is there morphology?
They are low squamous epithelia cells that are responsible for secretion of alkaline fluid component of pancreatic juice in response to secretin.
Why is it necessary for the centroacinar cells to produce alkaline fluid?
So that the zymogen granules released from acinar cells can be solubilized. It also helps to neutralize acidic chyme as it enters the duodenum.
The nucleus of acinar cells are located:
How/where are the zymogen granules released?
Basally. Zymogen granules are released into the lumen by exocytosis at the apical surface of the acinar cell.
What is the first enzyme to initiate the activation cascade for pancreatic enzymes? What produces it and where does this reaction take place? What reaction does it mediate?
Enterokinase - secreted by brush border epithelial cells. It mediates the conversion of inactive trypsinogen to active trypsin.
Once trypsinogen is converted trypsin, what does it degrade?
It cleaves other proenzymes thereby activating them also.
What is Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis?
It is a widespread destruction of pancreatic tissue caused by escape of activated pancreatic enzymes.
What is chronic pancreatitis?
Progressive destruction of the pancreas due to repeated occurrences of mild types of acute pancreatitis
What percentage of clustered Langerhans cells makes up the total pancreas?
1-2%
Where is there a higher concentration of Langerhans cells?
The tail
What two hormones do Langerhans cells secrete?
Insulin and Glucagon
What three peripheral tissues does insuline act on?
Liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue
What four biochemical activities does insulin induce?
1. Uptake of glucose
2. Phosphorylation of glucose
3. Utilization of glucose by all cells
4. Synthesis of glycogen from glucose by hepatocytes.
What are the four subsets of endocrine cells within the Islets of Langerhands? What do they secrete and what are their relative percentages?
1. Alpha glucagon (15-20%, periphery)
2. Beta insulin (70%, centralized)
3. Delta somatostatin (5%, periphery)
4. PP pancreatic polypeptide (1%)
Outline the steps resulting in insulin release:
1. Elevated blood glucose
2. Entry into b-cells via GLUT2
3. Glucose utilized through glycolytic pathway and mitochondrial ox phos to yield ATP
4. ATP closes ATP-sensitive transmembrane K channels
5. This activates voltage gated Ca channels and increases cytosolic Ca levels
6. Increased Ca levels trigger fusion of pre-stored insulin vessels