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26 Cards in this Set

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WHITE ET AL.
-Gave injections into different areas of the caudated to get improvements in certain memory. [Habit Learning]
PACKARD/McGAUGH
-T-maze with Rats;
-Double dissociation of Place Memory: Hippocampus, and Habit and Response: Caudate
DIVAC
Showed that the caudate and putamen are functionally different and it is based on the Cortex that is innervates
HIRSH/MISHKIN
Basal Ganglia is involved in a lower for of memory (stimulus response; aka habit learning) and is in parallel circuitry with the temporal lobe
KNOWLTON/SQUIRE
Confirmed Packard and McGaugh's findings using Parkinson and Amnesia patients
SHULTZ
Recorded from monkey VTA, Nucleus Accumbance, & Nigro-Stratal (all DA Neurons)
Found that they fire for novel and prediction of expected stimuli
POSNER/PETERSON
-Covert Attention Task
-Invalid is slower than valid;
-Theory: Disengage = Parietal CTX; Move = superior colliculus (which in close communication with FEF); Engage = Pulvinar of that thalamus
GREENWOOD/PARASURAMAN
Alzehiemer Patients (slight cortical damage and destroyed colenergic neurons) had trouble with the invalid Posner task aswell. This points that the Posner theory might be more complicated.
VOTKO
-Legioned the Nucleus basalis magnocellularis legions to get poor invalid respnses; Estrogen helps protect.
-Yet another complication of the POSNER estrogen protects from complete devastion
CHIBA
-immuno toxins were set intlegion the ch neuroin the basal fe
d poor on invaltrials
-Cholenergic input (BF-->CTX) reponsible for invalid trials
PINEDA
-Primate experiments
-LC legioned = deficency in Nor Epinephrine
-NorEp is also involved in orientation & attention(especially in 1.c Frontal)
GILL
-Vigilence task
-Medial PreFrontal Cortex Filters out/ Negates distractor signals in overt trials
-Alcohol & lack of Ach from the BF to the CTX inhibits mPRF
-mPFC is key in attention and focusing to block out distractors
DESIMONE
-primates and humans have LIP pathway V2->V4
WALLACE et al.
-Used Morse water maze
-Vestiular systems were inhibited and tested in cued; only light; and dark.
-Without Visual Info (eg dark) the Vestibular system are crucial. They are thought to tune the place fields.
TAUBE et al.
-confirmed WALLACE by recording very diffuse palce cells in vestibular legioned rats in the dark
VAN GROEN
-Rats with legioned thalamus has poor spatial mapping w/o cues
-While hippocampus & cortex are the most refined and primary; there are other rough systems in place as well like the thalamus and parietal CTX.
UNKNOWN (Probably Chiba)
Twelve Arm Radial Maze
Food 1 time only(Cntrl: 2nd time slower if at all; Hipp: as if 1st time; Partl: 2nd slower)
Food Replaced (Cntrl: Faster 2nd time; Hipp: Faster 2nd time; Partl: same speed as 1st.)
Double dissociation: Hippocampus=episodic
Parietal= Perceptual spatial Memory
QUIRK
-recorded place cells in the enterhinal cortex, yet they were diffuse and unreliable.
FROM Robert Clark's Lecture (no source)
-Enriched rats = increased dendrites(ie thicker); increased brain weight; increase connection (Unclear if due to moblity or learning
LASHLEY
Looking for Engrams of Memory
-While pure memory encoding is difficult to find due to connections and projections, Interpositus in the cerebellum is essential for association memory
KESNER
-Compartmentalized the brain w/ respect to function.
-From Rosteral to Caudal(Affect;Own Response; Space/Time; Sensory)
ALBERT et al.
-face recognition between hippocampal damage and Korsakoff's
Syndrome.
-Amnesia Patients did well
-K.S. did not
GLORE/HALGREN
-gave stimulus into Amygdala.
-Got Emotional Aspects(Fear;Other emotions;Deja Vu)
-Physiological Effects(Hallucinations;increase synpathetic nervous system;Epigastric feeling)
-Behavoir Effects:(Autonomic Coupling
-Amygdala is the key player for emotion
CAPP and GALLAGER
-Rabbits can run a maze w/o a hippocampus, yet poorly
-Other system pick up for lost parts and there is more than one spatial map.
MORRISON et al.
-fMRI of hungry versus satisfied
-VT cortex &IT cortex fired for both but Amygdala also fired for Hungry
SOLOMONE and colleages
-T-maze w/ motivation
-Can tell intesity
-N. Acc. = motivation center