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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is the normal frequency of antenatal visits?
every 4 weeks up until 28 weeks, every 2 weeks up until 36 weeks then weekly visits until delivery
what two procedures are carried out at every antenatal visit?
blood pressure and fundal height
why are women at risk of UTI during pregnancy?
stasis and dilatation of renal collecting system (due to mechanical obstruction to the ureters and progesterone mediated dilatation)
t/f... patients with recurrent UTIs or pyelinephritis should be maintained on prophylactic antibiotics throughout pregnancy
true
why is folate recommended during pregnancy?
to reduce neural tube defects
what are the early symptoms of pregnancy?
increase in size and tenderness of breasts, nausea, vomiting, urinary frequency, constipation, backache, dizziness, fatigue
what percentage of pregnant women are affected by hyperemesis gravidarum?
0.1%
what are the common later symptoms of pregnancy?
urinary frequency, incontinence, weight gain, binge eating, pica, oedema, sweating, breathlessness, heartburn, haemorrhoids, varicose veins, muscle spasm, back pain
which hormones are produced by the placenta?
human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen, progesterone
which hormones are produced by the feto-placental unit?
oestrogens
which hormones are released by the endometrium?
prolactin, renin
which hormones in pregnancy originate in the mother?
cortisol, angiotensin, aldosterone
what is the action of hCG?
ovarian support, sexual differentiation of the male foetus, regulation of the foetal adrenal cortex, maternal thyroid stimualation
what does human placental lactogen do?
alters maternal metabolsim to ensure a glucose supply to the foetus
what is the action of progesterone?
relaxation of smooth muscle (allows for uterine enlargement, causes increased blood flow to peripheral circulation), causes alteration in maternal metabolism by diminishing CO2 produciton and antagonsing insulin, aids breast development for breast feeding, alters mother's ability to concentrate and recall facts
what is the average weight gain in pregnancy?
12.5 kg
what is the cardiac response to progesterone mediated vasodilation?
cardiac output increases, intravascular volume increases, peripheral resistance is reduced
how much does blood volume increase during pregnancy?
up to 50% at term
what is the increase in red cell mass during pregnancy?
33%
what happens to maternal CO2 and O2 levels during pregnancy?
CO2 falls and O2 rises due to an increase in depth of breathing because of a rise in basal metabolic rate and the progesterone effect on the brain stem
what is the effect on creatinine clearance during pregnancy?
increases by 40%
how is the immune system affected during pregnancy?
decrease in cell-mediated immunity and increase in humoral immunity
what might protein in the urine in pregnancy indicate?
pre-eclampsia
what is placenta previa?
placenta covering opening from uterus to cervix