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38 Cards in this Set

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Describe the following terms pertaining to motion:
a. Inertia

b. Acceleration
c. Speed
d. Velocity
a. Inertia

The willingness of an object to remain at rest or to continue is motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
b. Acceleration

The rate of change of the speed and/or velocity of matter with time.
For example, if a ship, is moving at 10 knots, is moving at 18 knots one hour from now, and 21 knots 2 hours from now, it is said to be accelerating at a rate of 3 knots per hour.

c. Speed

The rate of movement or motion in a given amount of time. Speed is the term used when only the rate of movement is meant.
For example, if the rate of movement of a ship is 14 knots, we say its speed is 14 knots per hour.

d. Velocity

The quickness or speed of an object in a given time and direction.
For example: 200 mph due north.
Define the following laws of motion
newtons 1st 2nd and 3rd
a. Newton's First Law:

According to Newton's first law of motion (inertia), an object at rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until acted upon by an outside force.
For example, once an airplane is moving, another force may act on it to bring it to a stop, otherwise it will continue in its motion.

b. Newton's Second Law:

The second law of motion (force) states that if an object moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the change of motion, or acceleration, will be directly proportional to the amount of force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being moved.
Simply stated, an object being pushed by 10 pounds of force will travel faster than it would if it were pushed by 5 pounds of force.

c. Newton's Third Law:

The third law of motion (action and reaction) states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
This law is demonstrated with a balloon. If you inflate a balloon and release it without securing the neck, as the air is expelled, the balloon will move in the opposite direction of the air rushing out of it
Define Bernoulli's principle.
The principle states that when a fluid flowing through a tube reaches a constriction or narrowing of the tube, the speed of the fluid passing through the constriction is increased and its pressure decreased.
The general lift of an airfoil is dependent upon the airfoil's being able to create circulation in the airstream and develop the lifting pressure over the airfoil surface.

As the relative wind strikes the leading edge of the airfoil, the flow of air is split. Part is deflected upward and aft, and the rest is deflected down and aft. Since the upper surface of the wing has camber or a curve on it, the flow over its surface is disrupted, and this causes a wavelike effect to the wing. The lower surface is relatively flat. Lift is accomplished by the difference in the airflow across the airfoil.
Discuss the following weather warnings and their effect on naval aviation:
a. Wind warning
1. Small craft
2. Gale
3. Storm
b. Tropical cyclone warnings
1. Tropical depression
2. Tropical storm
3. Hurricane/typhoon
c. Thunderstorm/tornado warnings
1. Thunderstorm warning
2. Severe thunderstorm warning
3. Tornado warning
Discuss the following weather warnings and their effect on naval aviation:


a. Wind warning

Please note: one knot equals approximately 1.1 mile-per-hour.
Destructive weather poses a significant threat to personnel, aircraft, ships, installations, and other resources. Adequate and timely weather warnings, coupled with prompt and effective action by commanders concerned, will minimize loss and damage from destructive weather.


1. Small craft

Harbor and inland waters warning for winds, 33 knots or less, of concern to small craft. The lower threshold for issuing such warnings is set by local authority.
2. Gale

Warning for harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 34 to 47 knots.
3. Storm

Warning for harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 48 knots or greater.

b. Tropical cyclone warnings

Tropical cyclones are systems of cylonically rotating winds characterized by a rapid decrease in pressure and increase in winds toward the center of the storm. Their size may vary from 60 nautical miles to over 1000 nautical miles. Three stages of intensity are associated with tropical cyclones:

1. Tropical depression

Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 33 knots or less.
2. Tropical storm

Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 34 to 63 knots.
3. Hurricane/typhoon

Warning for land, harbor, inland waters, and ocean areas for winds of 64 knots or greater.

c. Thunderstorm/tornado warnings

Thunderstorms are small scale storms, invariably produced by a cumulonimbus cloud
and always accompanied by lightening and thunder. A tornado
is a violently rotating column of air, usually in the form of a funnel, extending from a thunderstorm cloud to the ground.
A tornado is one of the most violent and destructive storms known. Its winds can reach from 100 to 250 knots, although their winds have never been measured directly.
1. Thunderstorm warning

Thunderstorms are within 3 miles of the airfield, or in the immediate area.
2. Severe thunderstorm warning

Thunderstorms with wind gusts to 50 knots or greater and/or hail of 3/4 inch in diameter or greater is forecast to impact the warning area.
3. Tornado warning

Tornadoes have been sited or detected by RADAR in or adjacent to the warning area, or have a strong potential to develop in the warning area.
Describe the following aerodynamic terms:
a. Lift
b. Weight
c. Drag
d. Thrust
e. Longitudinal axis
f. Lateral axis
g. Vertical axis
a. Lift

The force that acts, in an upward direction, to support the aircraft in the air. It sounteracts the effects of weight. Lift must be greater than or equal to weight if flight is to be sustained.
b. Weight

The force of gravity acting downward on the aircraft and everything on the aircraft.
c. Drag

The force that tends to hold an aircraft back. Drag is caused by the disruption of the air about the wings, fuselage or body, and all protruding objects on the aircraft. Drag resists motion.
d. Thrust

The force developed by the aircraft's engine, and it acts in the forward direction. Thrust must be greater than or equal to the effects of drag in order for flight to begin or be sustained.
e. Longitudinal axis

An imaginary reference line running down the center of the aircraft between the nose and tail. The axis about which roll occurrs.
f. Lateral axis

An imaginary reference line running parallel to the wings and about which pitch occurrs.
g. Vertical axis

An imaginary reference line running from the top to the bottom of the aircraft. The movement associated with this axis is yaw.
State the three primary movements of aircraft about the axis
. Pitch - The movement of the aircraft about its lateral axis. The up and down motion of the nose of the aircraft.
b. Yaw - The movement of the aircraft about its vertical axis. The drift, or right or left movement of the nose of the aircraft.

c. Roll - The movement of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis. The movement of the wing tips; one up and the other down
Identify and state the purpose of the primary flight controls for:
fixed wing
rotary wing
. Fixed wing aircraft

The ailerons provide control about the longitudinal axis, the elevators provide control about the lateral axis, and the rudder provides control about the vertical axis.
b. Rotary wing aircraft


The collective stick controls the pitch of the rotor blades which translates to "up and down". The cyclic stick tilts the plane of the rotor blades forward, aft or sideways, giving the helicopter its directional motion. Lateral control is provided using the foot pedals to control the blades on the tail rotor
State the purpose of the following flight control surfaces:
Flap
spoiler
speed brakes
slats
horizontal stabilizer
vertical stabilizer
tail rotor
a. Flap

Gives the aircraft extra lift. The purpose is to reduce the landing speed, thereby shortening the length of the landing rollout. They also facilitate landing in small or obstructed areas by permitting the gliding angle to be increased without greatly increasing the approach. The use of flaps during takeoff serves to reduce the length of the takeoff run. Some flaps are hinged to the lower trailing edges of the wings inboard of the ailerons. Leading edge flaps are in use on the Navy F-4, Phantom II.
b. Spoiler

Used to decrease wing lift. However, the specific design, function, and use vary with different aircraft. On some aircraft, the spoilers are long narrow surfaces, hinged at their leading edge to the upper surfaces of the wings. In the retracted position, they are flush with the wing skin. In the raised position, they greatly reduce wing lift by destroying the smooth flow of air over the wing surfaces.
c. Speed brakes

Hinged or moveable control surfaces used for reducing the speed of aircrft. On some aircraft, they are hinged to the sides or bottom of the fuselage; on others they are attached to the wings. They keep the speed from building too high in dives. They are also used to slow the speed of the aircraft prior to landing.
d. Slats

Slats are movable control surfaces attached to the leading edge of the wing. When the slat is retracted, it forms the leading edge of the wing. When open, or extended forward, a slot is created between the slat and the wing leading edge.
High-energy air is introduced into the boundary layer over the top of the wing. At low airspeeds, this improves the lateral control handling characteristics, allowing the aircraft to be controlled at airspeeds below the normal landing speed. This is known as boundary layer control. Boundary layer control is intended primarily for use during operations from carriers; that is, for catapult takeoffs and arrested landings.
e. Horizontal stabilizer

Provides stability of the aircraft about its lateral axis. This is longitudinal stability. It serves as the base to which the elevators are attached. On some high-performance aircraft, the entire vertical and/or horizontal stabilizer is a movable airfoil. Without the movable airfoil, the flight control surfaces would lose their effectiveness at extrememly high speeds.
f. Vertical stabilizer

Maintains the stability of the aircraft about its vertical axis. This is known as directional stability. The vertical stabilizer usually serves as teh base to which the rudder is attached
what does the term angle of attack mean
The angle at which a body, such as an airfoil or fuselage, meets a flow of air. Defined as the angle between the chord line of the wing (an imaginary straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the wing) and the relative wind. The relative wind is the direction of the airstream in relationship to the wing.
For example, an aircraft in straight and level flight has the relative wind directly in front of it and has zero angle of attack since the relative wind is directly striking the leading edge of the wing. An aircraft flying parallel to the ground which has the nose trimmed significantly up, now has the leading edge of the wing (chord line) pointed at an upward angle; however, the relative wind is striking the bottom of the wing. An analogy is to hold your hand out of the car window with your palm facing the ground (zero angle of attack), and then to rotate your hand slightly in either direction. Angle of attack is measured in "units" as opposed to degrees.
Explain the term autorotation
A method of allowing a helicopter to land safely from altitude without using engine power by making use of the reversed airflow up through the rotor system to reduce the rate of descent.
Accomplished by lowering collective pitch lever to maintain rotor rpm while helicopter is decreasing in altitude, then increasing collective pitch at a predetermined altitude to convert inertial energy into lift to reduce the rate of descent and cushion the landing.
State the components of a basic hydraulic system.
a. A reservoir to hold a supply of hydraulic fluid.
b. A pump to provide a flow of fluid.

c. Tubing to transmit the fluid.

d. A selector valve to direct the flow of fluid.

e. An actuating unit to convert the fluid pressure into useful work.
Describe and explain the purpose of the main components of landing gear
. Shock Strut Assembly - Absorbs the shock that otherwise would be sustained by the airframe.
b. Tires - Allows the aircraft to roll easily and provides traction during takeoff and landing.

c. Wheel brake asembly - Used to slow and stop the aircraft. Also used to prevent the aircraft from rolling while parked.

d. Retracting and extending mechanism - All the necessary hardware to electrically or hydraulically extend and retract the landing gear.

e. Side struts and supports - Provides lateral strength/support for the landing gear.
107.13 State the safety precautions used when servicing aircraft tires on aircraft
Modern aircraft wheels and tires are among the most highly stressed parts of the aircraft.
High tire pressure, cyclic loads, corrosion and physical damage contribute to failure of aircraft wheels. The wheel fragments can be propelled several hundred feet. Always approach the tires from fore and aft.

When inflating, stand off to the side. Deflate when removing from the aircraft
State the 5 basic sections of a jet engine.
a. The intake which is an opening in the front of the aircraft engine that allows outside or ambient air to enter the engine.
b. The compressor which is made of a series of rotating blades and a row of stationary stator vanes. The compressor provides high-pressure air to the combustion chamber (or chambers).

c. The combustion chamber where fuel enters and combines with the compressed air.

d. The turbine section which drives the compressor and accessories by extracting some of the energy and pressure from the combustion gases.

e. The exhaust cone which is attached to the rear of the engine assembly and eliminates turbulence in the emerging jet, thereby giving maximum velocity.
107.15 Describe the following engine systems:
a. Turbojet

Projects a column of air to the rear at an extremely high velocity. The resulting effect is to propel the aircraft in the opposite or forward direction.
b. Turboshaft

Delivers power through a shaft to drive something other than a propeller. The power take off may be coupled directly to the engine, but in most cases it is driven by it's own free turbine located in the exhaust stream that operates independently on the engine. They have a high power-to-weight ratio and are currently used in helicopters.
c. Turboprop

Propulsion is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the gas-energy into mechanical power to drive a propeller. This is done by the addition of more turgine stages. Only a small amount of jet thrust is obtained on a turbo prop engine.
d. Turbofan

Basically the same as a turbo prop except that the propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed axial-flow fan. The fan can be part of the first stage compressor or mounted as a separate set of fan blades driven by an independent turbine depending on the fan design, it will produce somewhere around 50 percent of the engine's total thrust.
State the purpose of an afterburner.
Used during takeoff and combat maneuvering to boost the normal thrust rating of a gas turbine engine through additional burning of the ramaining unused air in the exhause section
State the NATO symbols for the following fuels and briefly explain the characteristics and reasons for the use of each
a. JP4-NATO Code F-40

Has a flamespread rate of 700-800 feet per minute and a low flashpoint of -10 degrees F or -23 degrees C. Never used on ships. Use of JP4 will normally cause an engine to operate with a lower exhaust gas temperature (EGT), slower acceleration, and lower engine RPM.
b. JP5-NATO Code F-44

Has a flamespread rate of 100 feet per minute, and a flashpoint of 140 degrees F or 60 degrees C. JP-5 is the only approved fuel for use aboard naval vessels. The lowest flashpoint considered safe for use aboard naval vessels is 140 degrees F. This is the Navy's primary jet fuel.
c. JP8-NATO Code F-34

Has a flamespread rate of 100 feet per minute, and a flashpoint of 100 degrees F or 40 degrees C
Describe the 3 hazards associated with jet fuel
Explosion from fuel fumes, vapor inhalation, and toxic contact with skin, eyes, or swallowing can cause illness or death
Describe the symptoms of fuel vapor inhalation.
The symptoms include nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Fuel vapor inhalatin can cause death.
Explain the purpose of the Auxiliary Power Unit
These power units furnish electrical power when engine-driven generators are not operating or when external power is not available. Most units use a gas turbine to drive the generator. The gas turbine provides compressed air for air conditioning and pneumatic engine starting. This makes the aircraft independent of the need for ground power units to carry out its mission
Identify the reasons for and methods of Non-Destructive Inspection
It is essential that defects be found and corrected before they reach catastrophic proportion. NDI can provide 100 percent sampling with no affect to the use of the part or system being inspected. Methods used may include visual, optical, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, radiographic, etc.
NDI is the practice of evaluating a part or sample of material without impairing its future usefullness.
Discuss icing and its effects on the performance of naval aircraft.
Ice on the airframe decreases lift and increases drag, weight, and stalling speed. The accumultion of ice in exterior movable surfaces affects the control of the aircraft. If ice begins to form on the blades of a propeller, the propeller's efficiency is decreased or further power is demanded of the engine to maintain flight. Most aircraft have sufficient resere power to fly with a heavy load of ice, but airframe icing is a serious problem because it results in increased fuel consumption and decreased range. The possibility always exists that engine system icing may result in loss of power. Icing can cause: loss of engine power, aerodynamic efficiency, loss of proper operation of control surfaces, brakes and landing gear, loss of outside vision, false instrument indications, and loss of radio
state the purpose of the following
a. Pitot-static

The pitot-static system in an aircraft includes some of the instruments that operate on the principle of the barometer. It consists of a pitot-static tube and 3 indicators, all connected with tubing that carries air. The three indicators are the altimeter, airspeed indicator, and the rate-of-climb indicator. Each operates on air taken from outside the aircraft during flight.
The tube or line from the pitot tube to the airspeed indicator applies the pressure of the outside air to the indicator. The indicator is calibrated so various air pressures cause different readings. The pitot tube is mounted on the outside of the aircraft at a point where air is least likely to be turbulent. It points in a forward direction parallel to the aircraft's line of flight.

Static means stationary or not changing. The static port introduces outside air, at its normal outside atmospheric pressure, as though the aircraft were standing still in the air. The static line applies this outside air to the airspeed indicator, altimeter, and rate-of-climb indicator.

b. Airspeed indicator

The airspeed indicator displays the speed of the aircraft in relation to the air in which it is flying. In some instances, the speed of the aircraft is shown in Mach numbers. The Mach number gives the speed compared to the speed of sound in the surrounding medium (local speed). For example, if an aircraft is flying at a speed equal to one-half the local speed of sound, it is flying at Mach 0.5. If it moves at twice the speed of sound, its speed is Mach 2.
c. Altimeters

The altimeter shows the height of the aircraft above sea level. The face of the instrument is calibrated so the counter or pointer displays the correct altitude of the aircraft.
d. Rate-of-climb

The rate-of-climb indicator shows the rate at which an aircraft is climbing or descending.
e. Attitude indicator

A pilot determines aircraft attitude by referring to the horizon. Often, the horizon is not visible. When it is dark, overcast, smokey, or dusty, the earth's horizon may not be visible. When one or more of these conditions exists, the pilot refers to the attitude indicator. It is also called the vertical gyro indicator or VGI. The instrument shows the pilot the relative position of the aircraft compared to the earth's horizon.
f. Turn and bank indicator

Shows the correct execution of a turn and bank. It also shows the lateral attitude of the aircraft in straight flight. It consists of a turn indicator and a bank indicator. The turn indicator is a gyro mounted in a frame that is pivoted to turn on a longitudinal axis. The direction of the turn is shown on the dial by a pointer. The gyro consists of a glass ball that moves in a curved glass tube filled with a liquid. When the pilot is executing a properly banked turn, the ball stays in the center position. If the ball moves from the center, it shows the aircraft is slipping to the inside or outside of the turn.
g. Navigation systems

Navigation systems and instruments direct, plot, and control the course or position of the aircraft. These may include the radios, transmitters, TACAN, LORAN, etc.
h. Identification Friend or Foe (IFF)

IFF is an electronic system that allows a friendly craft to identify itself automatically before approaching near enough to threaten the security of other naval units. A transponder in the friendly aircraft receives a radio-wave challenge. The transponder transmits a response to a proper challenge. All operational aircraft and ships of the armed forces carry transponders to give their identity when challenged.
i. Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR)


A radio device used to detect objects at distances much greater than is visually possible. Detectable objects include aircraft, ships, land, clouds, and storms. Radar also shows their range and relative position. Radar works on a echo principle. Sound waves travel out and by knowing the speeds and the time it takes for them to return as an echo, the distance can be measures.
One radar range mile is 12.36 microseconds. That is the time it takes for a radio wave to travel out and return back for one mile.

j. Magnetic (standby) compass

A direct-reading magnetic compass is mounted on the instrument panel. The face of the compass is read like the dial of a gauge.
k. Communication systems

Radio equipment does not require interconnecting wires between the sending and receiving stations. It is the only practical means of communication with moving vehicles, such as ships or aircraft. Modern aircraft use navigation aids such as simple radio direction finders to complex navigational systems.
State the purpose of the following armament:
a. Bombs

Any weapon other than a torpedo, mine, rocket or missile, dropped from an aircraft. Bombs are free-falling explosive weapons and may be unguided or "smart" or guided.
Designed for release over enemy targets to reduce and neutralize the enemy's war potential by destructive explosion, fire, nuclear reaction, etc.

b. Rockets

A weapon contraining an explosive section and a propulsion section. A rocket is unable to change its direction of movement once fired. It can be launched from an aircraft without the need of heavy or complex gun platforms and without violent recoil. Since rockets are usually launched at close range, it's accuracy as a propelled projectile is higher than that of a free-falling bomb dropped, from high altitude.
c. Missiles

A vehicle containing an explosive section, propulsion section, and guidance section. A missile is able to change direction or movement after being fired. Missiles are classified according to their range, speed, launch environment, mission and vehicle type.
d. Mines

An underwater explosive put into position by surface ships, submarines, or aircraft. A mine explodes only when a target comes near or in contact with it. Their primary objective is to effectively defend or control vital straits, port approaches, convoy anchorages and seaward coastal barriers.
e. Torpedoes

Self-propelled underwater missiles used against surface and underwater targets. Torpedoes are the primary weapon employed in antisubmarine warfare. They are designed to search, detect, attack and destroy submarines and surface ships.
Explain the purpose of the following
a. Circuit breaker

A protective device that opens a circuit when the current exceeds a predetermined value. Circuit breakers can be reset.
b. Fuse

A protective device inserted in-line with a circuit. It contains a metal that will melt or break when current is increased beyond a specified value, thus disconnecting the circuit from its power source to prevent damage
Explain the following avionics terms:
Note: Ohm's Law states E=IR

a. Voltage

The "driving force" behind current. Voltage, as applied to Ohm's Law, can be stated to be the base value in determining unknown circuit values. Designated by the letter (E).
b. Current

The flow of electrons. Ohm's Law states that current is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to the circuit resistance. Designated by the letter (I).
c. Resistance

The opposing force to the flow of electrons. As stated in Ohm's Law, current is inversely proportional to resistance. This means, as the resistance in a circuit increases, the current decreases proportionally. Designated by the letter (R).
107.15 Describe the following engine systems:
a. Turbojet

Projects a column of air to the rear at an extremely high velocity. The resulting effect is to propel the aircraft in the opposite or forward direction.
b. Turboshaft

Delivers power through a shaft to drive something other than a propeller. The power take off may be coupled directly to the engine, but in most cases it is driven by it's own free turbine located in the exhaust stream that operates independently on the engine. They have a high power-to-weight ratio and are currently used in helicopters.
c. Turboprop

Propulsion is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the gas-energy into mechanical power to drive a propeller. This is done by the addition of more turgine stages. Only a small amount of jet thrust is obtained on a turbo prop engine.
d. Turbofan

Basically the same as a turbo prop except that the propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed axial-flow fan. The fan can be part of the first stage compressor or mounted as a separate set of fan blades driven by an independent turbine depending on the fan design, it will produce somewhere around 50 percent of the engine's total thrust.
State the purpose of an afterburner.
Used during takeoff and combat maneuvering to boost the normal thrust rating of a gas turbine engine through additional burning of the ramaining unused air in the exhause section
State the NATO symbols for the following fuels and briefly explain the characteristics and reasons for the use of each
a. JP4-NATO Code F-40

Has a flamespread rate of 700-800 feet per minute and a low flashpoint of -10 degrees F or -23 degrees C. Never used on ships. Use of JP4 will normally cause an engine to operate with a lower exhaust gas temperature (EGT), slower acceleration, and lower engine RPM.
b. JP5-NATO Code F-44

Has a flamespread rate of 100 feet per minute, and a flashpoint of 140 degrees F or 60 degrees C. JP-5 is the only approved fuel for use aboard naval vessels. The lowest flashpoint considered safe for use aboard naval vessels is 140 degrees F. This is the Navy's primary jet fuel.
c. JP8-NATO Code F-34

Has a flamespread rate of 100 feet per minute, and a flashpoint of 100 degrees F or 40 degrees C
Describe the 3 hazards associated with jet fuel
Explosion from fuel fumes, vapor inhalation, and toxic contact with skin, eyes, or swallowing can cause illness or death
Describe the symptoms of fuel vapor inhalation.
The symptoms include nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Fuel vapor inhalatin can cause death.
Explain the purpose of the Auxiliary Power Unit
These power units furnish electrical power when engine-driven generators are not operating or when external power is not available. Most units use a gas turbine to drive the generator. The gas turbine provides compressed air for air conditioning and pneumatic engine starting. This makes the aircraft independent of the need for ground power units to carry out its mission
Identify the reasons for and methods of Non-Destructive Inspection
It is essential that defects be found and corrected before they reach catastrophic proportion. NDI can provide 100 percent sampling with no affect to the use of the part or system being inspected. Methods used may include visual, optical, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, radiographic, etc.
NDI is the practice of evaluating a part or sample of material without impairing its future usefullness.
Discuss icing and its effects on the performance of naval aircraft.
Ice on the airframe decreases lift and increases drag, weight, and stalling speed. The accumultion of ice in exterior movable surfaces affects the control of the aircraft. If ice begins to form on the blades of a propeller, the propeller's efficiency is decreased or further power is demanded of the engine to maintain flight. Most aircraft have sufficient resere power to fly with a heavy load of ice, but airframe icing is a serious problem because it results in increased fuel consumption and decreased range. The possibility always exists that engine system icing may result in loss of power. Icing can cause: loss of engine power, aerodynamic efficiency, loss of proper operation of control surfaces, brakes and landing gear, loss of outside vision, false instrument indications, and loss of radio
state the purpose of the following
a. Pitot-static

The pitot-static system in an aircraft includes some of the instruments that operate on the principle of the barometer. It consists of a pitot-static tube and 3 indicators, all connected with tubing that carries air. The three indicators are the altimeter, airspeed indicator, and the rate-of-climb indicator. Each operates on air taken from outside the aircraft during flight.
The tube or line from the pitot tube to the airspeed indicator applies the pressure of the outside air to the indicator. The indicator is calibrated so various air pressures cause different readings. The pitot tube is mounted on the outside of the aircraft at a point where air is least likely to be turbulent. It points in a forward direction parallel to the aircraft's line of flight.

Static means stationary or not changing. The static port introduces outside air, at its normal outside atmospheric pressure, as though the aircraft were standing still in the air. The static line applies this outside air to the airspeed indicator, altimeter, and rate-of-climb indicator.

b. Airspeed indicator

The airspeed indicator displays the speed of the aircraft in relation to the air in which it is flying. In some instances, the speed of the aircraft is shown in Mach numbers. The Mach number gives the speed compared to the speed of sound in the surrounding medium (local speed). For example, if an aircraft is flying at a speed equal to one-half the local speed of sound, it is flying at Mach 0.5. If it moves at twice the speed of sound, its speed is Mach 2.
c. Altimeters

The altimeter shows the height of the aircraft above sea level. The face of the instrument is calibrated so the counter or pointer displays the correct altitude of the aircraft.
d. Rate-of-climb

The rate-of-climb indicator shows the rate at which an aircraft is climbing or descending.
e. Attitude indicator

A pilot determines aircraft attitude by referring to the horizon. Often, the horizon is not visible. When it is dark, overcast, smokey, or dusty, the earth's horizon may not be visible. When one or more of these conditions exists, the pilot refers to the attitude indicator. It is also called the vertical gyro indicator or VGI. The instrument shows the pilot the relative position of the aircraft compared to the earth's horizon.
f. Turn and bank indicator

Shows the correct execution of a turn and bank. It also shows the lateral attitude of the aircraft in straight flight. It consists of a turn indicator and a bank indicator. The turn indicator is a gyro mounted in a frame that is pivoted to turn on a longitudinal axis. The direction of the turn is shown on the dial by a pointer. The gyro consists of a glass ball that moves in a curved glass tube filled with a liquid. When the pilot is executing a properly banked turn, the ball stays in the center position. If the ball moves from the center, it shows the aircraft is slipping to the inside or outside of the turn.
g. Navigation systems

Navigation systems and instruments direct, plot, and control the course or position of the aircraft. These may include the radios, transmitters, TACAN, LORAN, etc.
h. Identification Friend or Foe (IFF)

IFF is an electronic system that allows a friendly craft to identify itself automatically before approaching near enough to threaten the security of other naval units. A transponder in the friendly aircraft receives a radio-wave challenge. The transponder transmits a response to a proper challenge. All operational aircraft and ships of the armed forces carry transponders to give their identity when challenged.
i. Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR)


A radio device used to detect objects at distances much greater than is visually possible. Detectable objects include aircraft, ships, land, clouds, and storms. Radar also shows their range and relative position. Radar works on a echo principle. Sound waves travel out and by knowing the speeds and the time it takes for them to return as an echo, the distance can be measures.
One radar range mile is 12.36 microseconds. That is the time it takes for a radio wave to travel out and return back for one mile.

j. Magnetic (standby) compass

A direct-reading magnetic compass is mounted on the instrument panel. The face of the compass is read like the dial of a gauge.
k. Communication systems

Radio equipment does not require interconnecting wires between the sending and receiving stations. It is the only practical means of communication with moving vehicles, such as ships or aircraft. Modern aircraft use navigation aids such as simple radio direction finders to complex navigational systems.
State the purpose of the following armament:
a. Bombs

Any weapon other than a torpedo, mine, rocket or missile, dropped from an aircraft. Bombs are free-falling explosive weapons and may be unguided or "smart" or guided.
Designed for release over enemy targets to reduce and neutralize the enemy's war potential by destructive explosion, fire, nuclear reaction, etc.

b. Rockets

A weapon contraining an explosive section and a propulsion section. A rocket is unable to change its direction of movement once fired. It can be launched from an aircraft without the need of heavy or complex gun platforms and without violent recoil. Since rockets are usually launched at close range, it's accuracy as a propelled projectile is higher than that of a free-falling bomb dropped, from high altitude.
c. Missiles

A vehicle containing an explosive section, propulsion section, and guidance section. A missile is able to change direction or movement after being fired. Missiles are classified according to their range, speed, launch environment, mission and vehicle type.
d. Mines

An underwater explosive put into position by surface ships, submarines, or aircraft. A mine explodes only when a target comes near or in contact with it. Their primary objective is to effectively defend or control vital straits, port approaches, convoy anchorages and seaward coastal barriers.
e. Torpedoes

Self-propelled underwater missiles used against surface and underwater targets. Torpedoes are the primary weapon employed in antisubmarine warfare. They are designed to search, detect, attack and destroy submarines and surface ships.
Explain the purpose of the following
a. Circuit breaker

A protective device that opens a circuit when the current exceeds a predetermined value. Circuit breakers can be reset.
b. Fuse

A protective device inserted in-line with a circuit. It contains a metal that will melt or break when current is increased beyond a specified value, thus disconnecting the circuit from its power source to prevent damage
Explain the following avionics terms:
Note: Ohm's Law states E=IR

a. Voltage

The "driving force" behind current. Voltage, as applied to Ohm's Law, can be stated to be the base value in determining unknown circuit values. Designated by the letter (E).
b. Current

The flow of electrons. Ohm's Law states that current is directly proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to the circuit resistance. Designated by the letter (I).
c. Resistance

The opposing force to the flow of electrons. As stated in Ohm's Law, current is inversely proportional to resistance. This means, as the resistance in a circuit increases, the current decreases proportionally. Designated by the letter (R).