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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is taxonomy?
the science of classifying and naming organisms
What is a genus?
a group of closely related species
Who was Carolus Linnaeus?
(18th century) developed classification system
What does cladistics do?
it groups organisms on the basis of unique shared characters inherited from a common ancestor, or derived character
What is syngamy?
fusion of gametes to form a zygota, first diploid cell for a diploid organism
what are pseudopods?
"false feet", temporary, flowing extensions of cytoplasm
What are plankton?
microscopic floating marine organisms
What is a symbiont?
organisms that live in mutually beneficial relationship
What is a zooxanthellae?
a symbiont in other organisms
What is bioluminescent? Who is bioluminescent?
many plankton dinoflagellates emit light when disturbed
What are red tides?
population explosions that can color the water with pigmented dinoflagellate cells. red tides kill marine life due to the high concentration of toxins
What is a facultative heterotroph?
a photosynthetic form that can switch to being heterotrophs if kept in the dark, and switch back to autotrophs if given enough light
What is a pellicle coat?
a helical, flexible protein coat on the outside of the shell
a micronuclei is...
a diploid chromosome, for sexual reproduction
a macronuclei is...
derived from micronuclei, multiple copies of small strands of DNA for metabolic, synthetic and developmental functions
conjugation is ...
two different mating types; partners exchange haploid micronuclei that will fuse to make diploid micronuclei
What are saprobes?
parasites that feed on dead organic matter
What is a hyphae?
filamentous structures (threadlike cells)
What is a zoospore?
swimming mitospores
What is plasmodium?
a nonwalled, multinucleated mass
What is a sporangium?
a spore-containing structure
What is nuclear mitosis?
when the nuclear membrane remains intact during mitosis
What is a mass of hyphae called?
a mycelium
What are meiospores?
sexual spores formed by meiosis (haploid)
What are mitospores?
asexual spores formed by mitosis
What is plasmogamy?
the union of gamete cells
What is karyogamy?
the union of gamete nuclei
What are dikaryotic hyphae?
some fungi do plasmogamy but delay karyogamy, forming cells that each have two separate haploid nuclei
What is a paraphyletic basal assemblage?
grouping that starts at the base of a clade
What are sister groups?
branches from common mode
What is an ascus?
a sac where meiospores are formed
What is an ascoma?
a fruiting body where asci are contained
What are conidiophores?
modified hyphae for making mitospores
What is a conidia?
mitospores made by cells pinching off from cells at tips of conidiophores
What is a basidium?
a clubshaped reproductive structure that produces meiospores
What is a bastidioma?
a fruiting body where basidia are contained
What is a mutualism relationship?
a relationship between two species where both benefit
What is a litchens relationship?
a partnership between fungi and a unicellular photosynthesizer
What are pioneer organisms?
typically first organisms in an environment
WHat is a mycorrhizae relationship?
the association of fungus with a plant root
what is desiccation?
when the cell wall helps prevent water loss
Most plants have a waxy cuticle - where is it and what does it do?
on exposes surfaces, relatively impermeable, it prevents most water loss
What is a sporophyte?
a multicellular diploid organism, makes spores via meiosis
WHat is a gametophyte?
a multicellular haploid organism, makes gametes via mitosis
WHat does the meiosporangia in the sporophyte produce?
diploid mother cells
What are diploid mother cells called?
A meiosporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid ____.
Meiospores divide by ____, forming what?
The gametophyte produces haploid ___ in special ____ structures in some plants
What is an antheridium?
male gametangia, make sperm
What is an archegonium?
female gametangia, make eggs
sperm and egg fuse together to form what?
a diploid zygote
What is an embryo?
a zygote that has grown into a young sporophyte
What does saprobic mean?
deriving energy from nonliving organic matter
What are rhizoids?
not true roots, no vascular tissue, little water absorption
What is an antheridiophore?
antheridia on stalks
What is an archegoniophore?
archegonia on stalks
What (two) things is vascular tissue made of?
xylem and phloem
What is xylem? What does it do?
typically dead cells
moves water/minerals upward
partially lignified
What is lignin?
a highly branched polymer that makes cell walls more rigid
What is phloem? What does it do?
living cells
moves carbs through (down and up) plant
What are seeds?
highly resistant structures that increase ability of developing embryos to survive on land
What is coal?
incompletely decomposed, highly compressed, carbon-rich rock derived from the bodies of ancient seedless vascular plants
What is homosporous?
only one spore type (so only one gametophyte type)
What are heterospores?
two types of meiospores, (two types of gametophytes)
What is a megaspore? How does it grow and where?
(larger) it grows via mitosis into the female gametophyte
What is a microspore? How does it grow and where?
(smaller) it grows via mitosis into the male gametophyte
What are fronds?
What do silica deposits do in some epidermal vascular plant cells?
stiffens -- protects from predators