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20 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthetic protists have six major phyla:
1. Phylum Phyrrhophyta (dinoflagellates)
2. Phylum Euglenophyta (euglenoids)
3. Phylum Chrysophyta (diatoms and golden algae)
4. Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae)
5. Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae)
6. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae)
Six characteristics of Phylum Phyrrhophyta:
1. unicellular
2. mostly marine
3. usually 2 flagella
4. most have chlorophyll a and c
5. exoskeleton of plates of cellulose
6. asexual reproduction
most of the organisms in Phylum Phyrrhophyta are zooxanthellae, which is what? Where do they live, what do they make there?
symbionts (live in a mutually beneficial relationship) in other organisms
zooxanthellae in CORALS, do photosynthesis and help make corals very productive
an important role to Phylum Phyrrhophyta is also bioluminescent. What is this?
many plankton dinoflagellates emit light when disturbed. it creates sparkling waves and glowing wakes of ships at night
predatory dinoflagellates:
how? Why?
generate toxins that they use to kill marine life
pfiesteria pisicida
What are red tides?
population explosions that can color the water with pigmented dinoflagellate cells. red tides kill marine life due to the high concentration of toxins
Phylum Euglenophyta has 9 characteristics:
1. unicellular
2. mostly freshwater
3. some photosynthetic, some not
4. some are faculative heterotropic
5. have a pellicle coat
6. asexual reproduction
7.members of freshwater food chains
8. NOT a synapomorphy that defines a clade
9. example: Euglena
What is a facultative heterotroph?
a photosynthetic form that can switch to being heterotrophs if kept in the dark, and switch back to autotrophs if given enough light
What is a pellicle coat?
a helical, flexible protein coat on the outside of the shell
in phylum Chrysophyta, there are two overall characteristics:
1. have chlorophyll a and c (chloroplasts are like brown algae and dinoflagellates)
2. they make chrysolaminarin
What is chrysolaminarin?
a unique carbohydrate used for energy storage
Phylum Chrysophyta - Diatoms: 8 characteristics:
1. unicellular
2. 11,500 + species known
3. occur in plankton
4. lack flagella
5. cell wall = double shells of silica that fit together like a box and lid
6. shells have intricate designs
7. mostly asexual reproduction
8. CAN undergo gametic meiosis (usually diploid most of life)
importance of diatoms (2):
1. "grass of the sea" - abundant members of plankton, perform a large % of photosynthesis done in ocean
2. "diatomaceous earth" (fossil deposits of cell walls), mined and used for pest control
Phylum Chrysophyta - golden algae: 5 characteristics:
1. unicellular (often colonial)
2. freshwater protists
3. yellow and brown carotenoid and xanthophyll pigments (gives golden color)
4. usually two flagella
5. can form cysts
Phylum Rhodophyta has 8 characteristics:
1. mostly marine and mostly multicellular
2. no flagella
3. chloroplasts have phycobilins and chlorophyll a
4. characteristic of chyanbacteria (1st photosynthetic organism)
5. SO chloroplasts seem derived from an endosymbiotic relationship with cynobacteria
importance of red algae (2):
1. coral reefs are partially made of coralline red algae
2. agar and carrageenan - cell wall componenets are extracted and used as thickeners (ice cream)
Phylum Phaeophyta has 5 characteristics:
1. ~1500 species
2. multicellular, large, including kelps
3. chloroplasts have chlorophylls a and c
4. (sexual) alternation of generations and sporic meiosis
Phylum Phaeophyta: focus on kelps (4):
1. complex, branching vascular system = plants
2. "kelp forests" (impt to shallow water inhabitants)
3. harvested for alginates (cell wall materials), used for thickners
Phylum Chlorophyta has 5 characteristics:
1. diverse
2. unicellular --> multicellular species
3. chlorophyll a and b
4. some symbionts
5. asexual reproduction ALSO alternation of generations with sporic meiosis
Phylum Chlorophyta: importance (5):
1. base of food chain
2. possible nutritional supplement
3. plants evolved from a line of green algae
4. multicellular forms = nonvascular plants
5. DNA sequencing supports clade of plants and green algae