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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 evidences of macroevolution
-comparative morphology
-comparative biochemistry
2 kinds of comparative morphology
-morphological convergence
-morphological divergence
4 theories to explain the orgin of life
-iron sulfide theory
2 major catagories of cells
-prokaryotic (non oxygen based)
-eukaryotic (oxygen based)
first type of prokariyotic cell
-unbranched speciation
-the formation of organic material was carried to earth from somewhere else
-life was brought by other lifeforms and seeded on the planet
iron sulfide theory
-found that there were iron sulfide pelates that were being ejected regularly from geothermal vents. their center was made up of concentrated elements from the environment. they dissolved in the water and from there, life began to form.
dr. stanley miller
-formed the primortial soup theory
primortial soup theory
-a combination of chemicals that were hypothesized to be in the earth's environment when it was first forming were placed in water and exposed to high temperatures. within 2 weeks, there were amino acids (complex organic molecules)
endosymbiotic relationship
-archibacteria benifited from eubacteria and eubacteria benifited from archibacteria
reason why the endosymbiotic relationship took place
-archibacteria preyed on eubacteria and over time, the eubacteria began to resist digestion and adapt to the inside of the archibacteria. they both would eventually benifit off each other.
result of the endosymbiotic relationship
-archibacteria and eubacteria formed mitocondria
2 important instances of evolution
-carboniferus period: we got coal from an increasing growth of plant life continously growing, dying due to flooding, regrowing, and layering.
-cretaceous period: we got oil from large concentrations of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere from geothermal vents. this caused plantlife to gow, die from flooding, regrow, and layer.
2 theories to explain the extinction of dinosaurs
-KT impact theory
-global boiling hypothesis
KT impact theory
-the impact of astroids single-handedly wiped out the dinosaurs
global boiling hypothesis
-impact of astroids caused fireballs to rise into the air and hit earth again; thus heating up the surface temperature (taken from what happened on jupiter in the early 90's)
3 major shapes of bacteria
-coccus: sphere
-bacillus: rod
-spirillum: spiral
2 ways that bacteria reproduce
-asexual/prokaryotic fission
-bacterial conjugation
asexual/prokaryotic fission
-a cell gets large enough that the 2 rings in each cell begin to seperate until the cell breaks in half
bacterial conjugation
-sexual method (through a tube) of reproduction for bacteria
2 ways that viruses replicate
-lytic cycle (virus does not hide)
-lysogenic cycle (virus hides)
4 steps of the lytic cycle
-attachment (the point at which the body recongnizes virus)
-replication and synthesis
5 steps of the lysogenic cycle
-splices into the host DNA and waits
-replication and synthesis
virus effects a single population
virus effects multiple populations
2 types of infectious particles
-made up of a tightly coiled strand of RNA
small protein that can be airborn and somehow find its way into an organism (smaller than viroids)
2 metotrophic pathways (a pathway of metabolism)
2 heterotrophic pathways
(a pathway of metabolism)
-chemoheterotrophic (almost all bacteria)
-can strip electrons/protons in the form of hydrogen molecules and other compounds and use them to rebuild
-requires biproducts from other organisms in order to maintain a carbon source
-not cell feeders, either parasites(live off living organisms) or saprobes(live off dead or decaying organisms)
-uses inorganic energy sources
-bacteria that causes disease