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96 Cards in this Set

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servers
group of personal computers(usually up to 4 computers through a wire... a few more wirelessly) connected to one another. one computer(usually the strongest one) is used as a server and it is connected to a printer. they allow u to share files, hardware and software.
what servers are good for
sharing information
router
device that sends u on the fastest route to get u to where u want to go (also splits internet feed between systems)
software
the instructions that tell computer what to do how to do it turning the data into information (software program/just program)
hardware
consists of computer itself and its associated equipment
2 types of software programs
-system software programs
-application software programs
system software program
software that makes a computer useful. plans and step by step instructions are required to turn data into information. it consists of programs to control the operations of computer equipment. (operating system)
application software program
consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information
operating system
tells computer how to perform the functions of loarding, storing, and executing an application.... and how to transfer data
booting
when a computer is started; the operating system is loaded into computers main memory
rebooting
when you restart your computer
GUI (graphical user interface
-allows u to interact with the software by using graphics and icons
-controls how u enter data and how the screen displays information
(back in the day computer was completely text based; no icons)(ex: ms windows is a GUI that works with dos)
6 components of a computer system (hardware)
1. input device
2. processor(CPU)
3. memory
4. output device
5. secondary storage
6. communication device
input devices
take data in machine-readable form and sends it to the processor (ex: keyboard, mouse)
processor (CPU)
has the ability to manipulate data and transform raw data into processing information.
bits
the basic unit for representing data in computer memory
bytes
bits are put together in a group called a byte. each byte, usually 8 bits, represents one character of data. certain bits patterns represent certain characters
other forms based on the unit of bits
-kilobyte = 1024 = KB
-megabyte = (1024)*(1024) = MB
-gigabyte = (1024)^3 = GB
-terabyte = (1024)^4 = TB (1 trillion)
memory
associated with the cpu, temporarily holding data and instructions(programs)
RAM
random access memory
ROM
read only memory. contains programs and data that are permanently recorded into this type of memory. these programs can be read and used, but can not be changed.
2 main components of mobo
-processor
-memory
output devices
how the information comes back to u (ex: paper output, screen output)
secondary storage devices
auxiliary units outside the CPU which can store additional data (ex: floppy)
communications device
hardware component that enables a computer to send and recieve data, instructions and information
communication occurs over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites, and other transmission media
2 examples of communications devices
-dial up modems, dsl modems, cable modems, network cards, and routers
-cable and dsl modems send and recieve data from cable and dsl lines.
5 steps by which communication takes place
-COMPUTER A - sends out digital signals
-MODEM A - converts digital signal to analog signals
-PHONE LINE - sends analog signal to MODEM B
-MODEM B - converts analog signal back to digital
-COMPUTER B - recieves the digital signal
6 different communication channels
-telephone line
-pda cable
-cable tv
-underground lines
-microwave stations
-satellites
communications network
collection of computers and other equipment using communcations channel to share hardware, software, data, and information
LAN
a network which covers a limited geographical area such as a school computer laboratory, or an office
WAN
consists of a communications channel connecting a group of personal computers to one another in far apart locations. satellite will be used to transmit
main problem with various network
security
3 reasons why wireless lans are popular
-mobile and flexible providing users with the ability to access the internet and up-to-the-minute information at work or at home
-easy to install, eliminating the need for cables and wires to be installed by professionals
-although they have relatively high initial set-up costs when compared to the wired LANs; however, in the long run, with ever-changing and advanced technology, it is a must better investment
3 ways that wireless lans work
-use radio or infrared electromagnetic waves to communicate information from one point to another; without the use of the copper wires
-sometimes, devices known as access points or for DSL/cable, routers connect to the wired network and transmit information between the wireless LAN and the wired network
-one access point or router provides enough of a signal to support a small group of computers within a range of one foot to several hundred feet(theoretically, home routers can reach 300 ft. the usual range is about 150 ft.)
broadcast radio
a wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals through the air over long(two cities) or short distances(within home)
bluetooth
transmission is based on short-range radio waves
3 bluetooth pros
-connects up to 2 Mbps (reasonable speed)
-2.4 Ghz frequency
-moderate cost
2 bluetooth cons
-has a very short range. range can be affected by building materials
-high interference rate. other 2.4 GHz devices, like cordless phones, may disrupt connection.
Wi-Fi(wireless fidelity)
users wirelessly connected to the network (ex: public access points)
5 wireless network standards
-802.11b
-802.11g
-802.11a
-802.11 Super G
-802.11n
3 802.11b/802.11g Pros
-theoretical speed is 11 and 54 Mbps may not be achieved
-has a practical range of 150ft. range can be affected by building materials
-moderate cost/low cost
3 802.11b/802.11g Cons
-2.4 Ghz frequency
-has a high interference rate
-other 2.4 GHz devices like cordless phones may disrupt connection
3 802.11a Pros
-connects at a speedo f 54Mbps
-5Ghz frequency
-low interference rate
2 802.11a Cons
-high cost
-not compatible with 802.11b and 802.11g
802.11 Super G
new standard for wireless connection (speed)
3 Pros for 802.11N
-higher speed than other standards.
-200Mbps or more in the 5Ghz band
-fast enough for video and multi media application
802.11 vs Bluetooth (focus of each)
-802.11: LAN
-Bluetooth: PAN
802.11 vs Bluetooth (rated speed)
-802.11: 11 to 108Mbps in both directions
-Bluetooth: may increase to 2 Mbps
802.11 vs Bluetooth (distance)
-802.11: 30 to 100 meters
-Bluetooth: 10 meters
802.11 vs Bluetooth (number of devices)
-802.11: limited in practice only because of high traffic
-Bluetooth: limited to a few devices
802.11 vs Bluetooth (cost)
-802.11: higher
-Bluetooth: lower
WiMax (802.16)
latest netork standard which specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air
2 histories of wireless security (specifically, 802.11)
-had no security by default
-in older products, the installation default was to have no security at all
4 first steps to adding security to wireless
-wired equilalent privacy(WEP)
-all computers share the same encryption key with the access point
-this key os rarely changed because of the difficulty of coordinating the many users sharting it
-this is a shared static key
4 second steps to adding security to wireless
-add log in option
-add firewall
-use devices with ERP(wired equilivalent privacy)
-use devices with WPA(wireless protected access). WPA is much safter than WEP. each station gets a seperate key that is frequently changed
3 jobs of a firewall (packet filter)
-designed to prevent malicious packets from entering the network or computers.
-a firewall can be software based or hardware based. a software firewall runs as a program on a local computer to protect it against attacks, while hardware firewalls are separate devices that typically protect an entire network.
-allow, block, and prompt are the three possible actions of a typical firewall
2 dangers with automated driveby hacking
-can read traffic from outside the corporate/home walls
-can alspo send malicious traffic into the network
6 forms of malicious code
-computer virus
-worm
-logic bomb
-spyware
-adware
-pop up
malicious code
computer programs that are intentionally created to break into computers or to create chaos after the computers are accessed
how a computer virus is created
it is a program or code which secretly attaches itself to other programs. when the program executes, the virus is also executed. the virus may have instructions to erase the hard drive or cause the computer to continually crash.
3 ways viruses have spread
-Diskette (1996- majority of viruses)
-Email (2002- majority of viruses)
-Internet
2 ways a computer worm is different from a virus
- virus attaches itself to other computer document; however, worm does not attach to a host document in order to spread. a worm can travel by itelf.
- a virus needs a user to perform some type of action such as reading email. a worm is self-executing. a worm can start on its own without any action from the user.
logic bomb
computer program that lies 'asleep' until it is triggered by a specific event(remove a name from the payroll system may cause the system to shut down). this is a problem in corperate networks
spyware
hardware or software that spies on what the user is doing and captures the activities without the users knowlege.(comes in through internet)
adware
forcibly will redirect your web browser to sites that u have no intention of going to
3 forms of internet security
-anti-spam program
-web filter
-pop-up blocker
3 examples of anti-spyware/adware programs
-ms beta
-lavasoft adware
-spybot
3 examples of anti-virus and diagnostic testing programs
-norton
-mcafee security
-PC-doctor
security difference between windows and mac
-mac is safer because less people use it
cookie
small text file that a web server stores on your computer. cookie files typically contain data about u, such as ur user name or viewing preferences
2 reasons why websites use cookies
-store users passwords(so they do not have to enter it every time)
-keep track of items in a users shopping cart
store a users interest and browsing habits for target advertisements
spam
an unwanted email message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients at once. span is known as internet junk mail
phishing
scam in which an official looking email message attempts to obtain your personal and financial information. instead of responding to the email, it is recommended that you visit the web site directly to determine if the request is valid
anti-spam program
attempts to remove spam before it reaches your emailbox
pop-up blockers
stops advertisements from displaying on wen pages and disables pop-up windows
4 other steps to make your computer safer
-update ur antivirus progam regularly
-if u are using windows xp, download SP2
-do not open an email attachment unless u are expecting the attachment and it is from trusted sources
-do not start a computer with removable media(CD, DVD, Floppy) in ur drives
HTTP
hypertext transfer protocol
secure HTTP
web addresses of secure sites begin with https instead of http. secure sites display a lock symbol on the status bar. many financial sites use https.
3 examples of wireless internet providers
-boingo (local hot spot)
-verizon (mobile broadband access)
-sprint (mobile broadband access)
double-clicking
open an application
clicking twice
rename a file
requirements to naming a file
file name can be at most 256 characters
folder (directory)
an area of a disk created by the user to store related groups of files
root directory
when we first prepare to use (format it), a single directory, called the root directory, is created
5 uses of excel
-organize data
-complete calculation
-make decisions
-create graphs
-perform preliminary data analysis
3 major parts of excel
-worksheets
-charts
-databases
workbook in excel
new workbook opens with 3 worksheets (u may increase the number of worksheets to 255)
worksheet in excel
inside the workbook are sheets. each sheet has 256 columns and 65536 rows
fill handle in excel
allows us to copy an already used function again
2 types of addresses in excel
-relative address
-absolute address
relative address
cell reference that shifts when u copy it to a new location (address is changing)
absolute address
cell reference that does not change when u copy it to a new location (address does not change)
5 ways to improve your table in excel
-font
-use functions
-add graph
-center ur title
-sort ur data
adding tab color in excel
add color to ur sheet by right-clicking on ur sheet tab. a menu will appear which can be used to add color to the sheet tab
2 ways to get external data from a world wide website
-download the data in spreadsheet format
-while in excel, we can run a WEB QUERY to retrieve data (mainly financial) stored on different WWW site
2 different ways of getting math, stat, and financial functions
-you can write the formula
-in excel, we can use the following operators
%, ^, *, /, +, -

-use excel functions (math, finance, statistics, etc functions)