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201 Cards in this Set

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n : naturally occurring or synthetic; consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
polymer
Pigment of red blood cells responsible for oxygen transport.(p.18,208)
hemoglobin
Lipid-solution, biologically active molecules having four interlocking rings;examples are cholesterol, progesterone, and testosterone.(p.25)
steroid
To build up, such as the combining together of two small molecules to form a larger molecule.(p.27)
synthesis
A natural or synthetic substance formed by a combination of two or more molecules (and up to millions) of the same substance.
polymer
Molecules reacting with one another.(p.27)
reactants
A substance that precedes another substance, or a substance from which another is synthesized.
precursor
Breaking of a chemical bond such that ions are released.(p.21)
ionize
Chemical attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion.(p.18)
ionic bond
A charged atom.(p.18)
ion
Elevated blood pressure, particularly the diastolic pressure(arterial blood pressure during the diastolic phase of cardiac cycle).(p.18)
hypertension
Splitting of a bond by the addition of water.(p.23)
hydrolysis
Weak attraction between a partially positive hydrogen and a partially negative oxygen or nitrogen some distance away;found in proteins and nucleic acids.(p.21)
hydrogen bond
Polysaccharide that is the principal storage compound for sugar in animals.(p.23)
glycogen
molecules that contain a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group.
fatty acids
molecule used by cells when energy is needed
ATP(adenosine triphosphate
Organic molecule that the body uses for long-term energy storage.(p.24)
fat
Protein catalyst that speeds up a specific reaction or a specific type of reaction.(p.25)
enzyme
The simplest of substances, consisting of only one type of atom (for example, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen).(p.17)
element
Any substance that ionizes and conducts electricity;electrolytes are present in the body fluids and tissues.(p.21)
electrolyte
Nucleic acid;the genetic material found in the nucleus of a cell.
DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)
Sugar that contains two units of a monosaccharide;for example;maltose.(p.23)
disaccharide
Condition characterized by an abnormally large production of urine, due to a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone.(p.23)
diabetes insipidus
Chemical bond created by the sharing of electrons between atoms.(p.18)
covalent bond
Chemical change resulting in the covalent bonding of two monomers with the accompanying loss of a water molecule.(p.23)
condensation
Pigment of red blood cells responsible for oxygen transport
hemoglobin
One of two or more atoms with the same atomic number that differs in the number of neutrons and, therefore, in weight.(p.18)
isotope
Group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water--notably,fats,oils, and steroids.(p.24)
lipid
Simple sugar;a carbohydrate that cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis.(p.23)
monosaccharide
Large organic molecule found in the nucleus (DNA & RNA) and cytoplasm (RNA) (p.29)
nucleic acid
Bond that joins two amino acids(p.27)
peptide bond
Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration;any pH below 7 is acidic and any pH above 7 is basic.(p.22)
pH
Carbohydrate composed of many bonded glucose units--for example, glycogen.(p.23)
polysaccharide
Macromolecule composed of amino acids.(p.25)
protein
Atom whose nucleus undergoes degeneration and in the process gives off radiation.(p.18)
radioactive isotope
Nucleic acid that helps DNA in protein systhesis.(p.29)
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Nucleic acid that helps DNA in protein synthesis.(p.29)

protein-macromolecule composed of amino acids

synthesis-to build up, such as the combining together of two small molecules to form a larger molecule
ribonucleic acid(RNA)
Can both the Pet Scan and the MRI produce images of internal organs?
Yes
Excessive accumulation of acids in body fluids.
acidosis
Molecule used by cells when energy is needed. (p.29)
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Excessive accumulation of bases in body fluids.
alkalosis
Unit of protein that takes its name from the fact that it contains an amino group (--NH2){2 is subscript} and an acid group (--COOH). (p.27)
amino acid
ATP (p.29)
adenosine triphosphate - molecule used by cells when energy is needed
Solution in which pH is more than 7;a substance that contributes or liberates hydroxide ions in a solution;alkaline;opposite of acid.(p.21)
base
Substance or compound that prevents large changes in the pH of a solution.
(p.22)
buffer
Organic compounds with the general formula (CH2{2 is subscript}O)n{n is subscript), including sugars and glycogen. (p.23)
carbohydrate
Chemical substance having two or more different elements in fixed ratio.(p.18)
compound
Matching Set (p.17)
1. positive charge
2. negative charge
3. subatomic particle
4. located in nucleus of atom
5. located in energy shells

Choices
a. electrons
b. nutrons
c. protons
d. protons and neutrons
e. protons, electrons, and neutrons
1. c. protons
2. a. electrons
3. e. protons, electrons, and neutrons
4. d. protons and neutrons
5. a. electrons
Matching Set (pp.23-29)
1. formed from unit molecules called amino acids
2. include triglycerides and steroids
3. examples include starch and glycogen
4. DNA and RNA
5. Insoluable in water

Choices
a. carbohydrates
b. lipids
c. proteins
d. nucleic acids
1. c. proteins
2. b. lipids
3. a. carbohydrates
4. d. nucleic acids
5. b. lipids
__________ have a positive charge.
protons

Always remember: the p in positive goes with the p in protons
__________ have a negative charge.
electrons
Protons, electrons, and neutrons are all subatomic particles of an _______.
atom
Protons, electrons, and neutrons are __________ __________ of an __________.
subatomic particles
atom
_________ and _________ are located in nucleus of atom.
Protons
neutrons
__________ are located in energy shells.
Electrons
Matching Set (p.19)
1. Detects metabolic activity
2. Uses X-rays
3. Requires a powerfull magnetic field

Choices
a. MRI
b. Pet Scan
c. Cat Scan
d. Cat Scan and Pet Scan
1. b. Pet Scan
2. c. Cat Scan
3. a. MRI
What are ions?
Ions are atoms with either extra electrons or missing electrons.

(A normal atom is considered neutral. That is when an atom has a number of electrons equal to its atomic number. In other words, has a net electric charge of zero.)
Substances that yield hydrogen ions or protons.
acid
A molecule that contains more than one type of atom is call a(n)__________. (p. 18)
compound
Proteins that function as organic catalysts that speed chemical reactions are called __________.(p. 25)
enzymes
Two amino acids are held together by a(n) __________ bond. (p. 27)
peptide
Does your mother use Tide?
Lipids with polar "heads" and nonpolar "tails" are called ________. (p. 25)
phospholipids
Formed from unit molecules called amino acids.
proteins
Starch and glycogen are examples of __________.
carbohydrates
________ are insoluable in water.
Lipids
There are four DNA nucleotides, each with one of the four nitrogen bases which are:
1. adenine nucleotide
2. thymine nucleotide
3. cytosine nucleotide
4. guanine nucleotide
The first letter of each of these four bases is often used to symbolize the respective nucleotide (A for adenine nucleotide, and so forth.
Starch and glycogen are examples of __________. (pp. 23-29)
carbohydrates
DNA and RNA are ________ ______. )pp. 23-29)
nucleic acids
__________ are insoluable in water. (pp. 23-29)
Lipids
__________ are formed from unit molecules called amino acids.
(pp. 23-29)
Proteins
Adenine always bonds with __________ and Cytosine always bonds with __________.
thymine
guanine
adenine/thymine (AT)kinda like AT&T the phone company.
cytosine/guanine (CG-as in Casa Grande)
DNA forms a two-stranded spiral, or __________ __________.
double helix
A DNA molecule consists of three parts:
1. A nitrogen base
2. A five-carbon sugar called deoxyribose
3. A phosphate group
DNA is a polmer of __________.
nucleotides
Does your mother use Tide soap?
Atoms contain subatomic particles called _____, _____, and _____.
protons
neutrons
electrons
Molecules are fomed when _____ bond to one another.
atoms
Carbohydrate composed of many bonded glucose units - for example, glycogen.
polysaccharide
All proteins are polymers of amino acids;that is, they consist of a chain of amino acids ________ bonded.

The bonds between the amino acids are called ________ bonds, and the chain is a ________, or ________.
covalently
peptide
polypeptide
peptide
All _____ are polymers of amino acids.
proteins
All proteins are _____ of amino acids.
polymers
True or False

The secondary structure of a protein is its three-dimensional shape.
True - The secondary structure of a protein is its three-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid;the genetic material found in the nucleus of a cell, deoxyribonucleic acid.
DNA
Because of their positive or negative charges, these atoms are called ions. The attraction of the positive ion to the negative ion constitutes the __________ bond.
ionic
In an ionic bond the atom that donates electrons has an overall __________ charge.
positive
In an ionic bond the atom that gains electrons has an overall __________ charge.
negative
__________ bonds form between two atoms when one or more electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other.
ionic
List four important classes of organic molecules.
1. carbohydrates
2. lipids
3. proteins
4. nucleic acids
True or False - Phospholipids are composed of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids.
False - Phospholipids look just like lipids except that one of the fatty acid chains is replaced by a phosphate group.
Which of the following is true of RNA?
a. Composed of a nitrogen base, a six-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group.
b. Does not utilize deoxyribose as its sugar
c. Is often double-stranded
d. Has thymine, adenosine, cytosine, and uracil as its nucleotides.
b. Does not utilize deoxyribose as its sugar.
List 3 ways that RNA differs from DNA.
1. The sugar in the nucleotides that make an RNA molecule is ribose, not deoxyribose as it is in DNA.
2. The thymine nucleotide does not occur in RNA. It is replaced by uracil. When pairing of bases occurs in RNA, uracil (instead of thymine) pairs with adenine.
3. RNA is usually single-stranded and does not form a double helix as does DNA.
Where does the notation "pH" come from?
The "p"=power, as in power of Hydrogen (e.g., to the 10th power)
__________ is the simplest kind of carbohydrate.
monosaccharide
Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration.
pH
To the tune of Row,Row,Row your boat...
We love DNA, made of __________;a __________, __________, and a __________, bonded down one side. __________, and __________ make a lovely pair, __________, without _________ would feel very bare.
nucleotides
sugar
phosphate
base
adenine
thymine
cytosine
guanine
Elements contain tiny particles called __________. Only one type of __________ is present in each element, and therefore, the same name is used for both.
atoms
atom
A(n) _______ is the smallest unit of matter to enter into chemical reactions.
atom
Protons have a _____________(+) electrical charge and electrons have a ___________ (-) charge.
positive
negative
When an atom is electrically __________, the number of protons equals the number of electrons.
neutral
When an atom is electronically __________, the number of protons equals the number of electrons.
neutral
If a carbon atom has an atomic number of six; then it has six __________. Since it is electrically neutral, it also has six __________.
protons
electrons
An ion is an atom that has acquired an electrical charge by either losing or gaining an __________.
electron
Substances that yield hydrogen ions or protons in solution are called __________.
acids
Substances that accept (react with)hydrogen ions or protons are called __________.
bases
T or F
Atoms contain equal numbers of protons and electrons.
True
What does the following formula represent? 7H2(subscript 2)O
7 molecules of water
The formula 3O represents 3 __________ of oxygen.
atoms
Atoms combine to form __________.
molecules
A molecule contains two or more atoms of the same or different __________.
elements
Atoms that have the same atomic number and differ only in the number of __________ are called __________.
neutrons
isotopes
In the periodic table of the elements the top number is the __________ __________ and the bottom number is the __________ __________.
atomic number
atomic weight
The number of protons in a atom is called?
the atomic number
What are the subatomic particles that make up an atom?
Protons, neutrons, and electrons
What is a negatively charged atomic particle that is in constant motion around the nucleus?
electron
What is a pure substance that's made up of only one kind of atom?
element
What is a subatomic particle that has a positive electric charge?
neutron
What is a table of the elements arranged according to their atomic number called?
periodic table
What is at the center on any atom?
nucleus
What is the smallest unit of a pure substance that still has the properties of that substance?
atom
The base adenine and the sugar ribose together is called __________.
adenosine
number of protons and neutrons is called?
atomic weight
All matter is composed of __________, each containing just one type of __________.
elements
atom
number of protons is called?
atomic number
Each __________ has an atomic symbol, atomic number (number of protons), and atomic weight (number of protons and neutrons).
atom
Atoms react with one another to form __________.
molecules
Following one type of reaction, positively and negatively charged ions form a molecule in which they are __________ bonded. Following another type of reaction, atoms sharing electrons from a molecule in which they are __________ bonded.
ionically
covalently
Abnormally low amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin, due to a lack of iron in the diet.(p.18)
iron deficiency anemia
Pigment of red blood cells responsible for oxygen transport.
hemoglobin
Molecule used by cells when energy is needed.
ATP-(adenosine triphosphate)
DNA and RNA are __________ of nucleotides joined together.
polymers
DNA and RNA are polymers of __________ joined together.
nucleotides
Inability to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream;predisposes individual to heart attack.(p.25)
familial hypercholesterolemia
indicating a tendency to, or susceptibility to, disease
predisposing
Solution in which pH is less than 7;substance that contributes or liberates hydrogen ions in a solution;opposite of "base".(p.21)
acid
Blood sugar that is broken down in cells to acquire energy for ATP production.(p.23)
glucose
Ions are charged atoms that have either lost or gained __________.
electrons
Any pH below 7 is __________ and any pH above 7 is __________.(p.22)
acidic
basic
__________ are particles that carry either a positive (+) or negative (-) charge.
Ions
A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer.
monomer
_________ are atoms with either extra electrons or missing electrons.
Ions
When an atom has a number of electrons equal to its atomic number it is considered to be a normal atom or __________ atom.
neutral
When an atom has a number of electrons equal to its atomic number it is considered to be __________.
neutral
Ions are charged __________ that have either lost or gained electrons.
atoms
Substances that accept (react with) hydrogen ions or protons.
bases
Three-carbon molecule that joins with fatty acids to form fat.(p.24)
glycerol
Molecules that contain a hydrocarbon chain and ends with an acid group.
fatty acids
A normal atom is considered __________. That is when an atom has a number of electrons equal to its __________ __________. In other words, has a net electric charge of zero.)
neutral
atomic number
What makes Carbon 14 unstable and therefore, radioactive?
(I copied this answer)
The short answer ... Think of isotopes as a "variation on a theme," which means that C-14 is a variation of C-12. And, because it's a variation, it's unstable, and emits radiation.
_____ bonded molecules contain oppositely charged _____.
ionically
ions
__________ bonded molecules contain __________ that share electrons.
covalently
atoms
_______ include triglycerides and steroids.
Lipids
__________ are charged atoms that have either lost or gained electrons.
ions
n : a nucleic acid consisting of large molecules shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information [syn: desoxyribonucleic acid, DNA](p.29)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
Any of a class of sugars, including lactose and sucrose, that are composed of two monosaccharides.(p.23)
disaccharide
The body (does) or (does not) store amino acids for the production of proteins, which are found particularly in muscles but also in all cells of the body.
does not
T or F
It is better to obtain protein from meat origins than from plant origins i.e. whole-grain cereals, dark breads, and legumes.
False

better to obtain protein from plant origins
All matter, living and nonliving, is composed of __________.
elements
The sugar in DNA is __________ and the sugar in RNA is __________.
deoxyribose
ribose
The bases in DNA are __________, __________, __________, __________.
(hint: Remember A,T,C,G)
adenine
thymine
cytosine
guanine
The bases in RNA are __________, __________, _________, __________.
(note: remember A,U,C,G)
adenine
uracil
cytosine
guanine
The strands of DNA are ________-_________, whereas the strands in RNA are _________-__________.
double-stranded
single-stranded
The number of protons in the nucleus is called?
atomic number
__________ __________ expresses the sim of the masses of the paticles in the atom.
Mass Number
Mass Number minus the Atomic Number equals the number of __________.
neutrons
Substances that yield hydrogen ions or protons in solution are called __________.
acids
Substances that accept (react with) hydrogen ions or protons are called __________.
bases
The acid or basic strength of a solution may be expressed in terms of a number called the __________ of that solution.
pH
The pH scale expresses the concentration of __________ ions (and __________ ions) in solution.
hydrogen
hydroxide
The pH range is from 0-_____, with a pH of ____ indicating a neutral solution. A pH below ______ indicates an acid solution.
14
7
7
A solution whose pH is above 7 is called a ________ solution.
basic
A ________ solution is one that maintains a constant pH upon the addition of small amounts of either acid or base.
buffer
Substances that break apart and release ions when put into water are called _________, since the ions can conduct an electrical current.
electrolytes
Particles that carry either a positive (+) or negative (-) charge?
ions
Any pH below 7 is _______.
acidic
Any pH above 7 is ______.
basic
Carbohydrates supply short-term but quick _____ for all organisms, including humans.
energy
If the number of carbon atoms in a molecule (from three to seven) then the carbohydrate is a simple sugar or __________.
monosaccharide
A __________ contains two monosaccharides.
disaccharide
A __________ contains a large number of monosaccharides.
polysaccharide
Lipids are non-polar, in other words they are __________ in water.
insoluable
T or F
Steroids are lipids with an entirely different structure from that of fats.
True
The difference in structure that makes lipids insoluble in water is that, unlike water, their electrons are _______ distributed.
evenly
Many lipids, are _______, which means that, unlike water, their electrons are _______ distributed and __________ in water.
non-polar
evenly
insoluable
A fat contains two types of unit molecules: ________ and ______ ______.
glycerol
fatty acids
__________ is an immediate source of energy in cells.
glucose
Steroids are _______ with an entirely different structure from that of fats.
lipids
Lipids include nonpolar fats (long-term, energy-storage molecules that form from _______ and three ______ ______) and the related phospholipids, which have a charged group.
glycerol
fatty acids
Proteins have both __________ and __________ functions in the human body.
structural
enzymatic
Amino Acids are the unit milecules for _______ and __________.
peptides
polypeptides
______ ______ are the unit molecules for peptides and polypeptides.
Amino acids
Large organic molecule found in the nucleus (DNA & RNA) and cytoplasm(RNA)?
nucleic acids
Both DNA and RNA are __________ of nucleotides;only __________ is double-stranded.
polymers
DNA
Both DNA and RNA are polymers of __________;only DNA is __________-stranded.
nucleotides
double
DNA makes up the genes, and along with RNA, controls __________ __________.
protein synthesis
__________ are organic catalysts that speed chemical reactions.
Enzymes
Enzymes are __________ __________ that speed chemical reactions.
organic catalysts
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a very special type of __________.
nucleotide
T or F
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a very special type of nucleotide.
True
ATP is the ______ currency of cells: When cells "need" __________, they "spend" ATP.
energy
A(n) __________ bond is produced whenever one atom loses an electron or electrons and anothe atom gains an electron or electrons.
ionic
A(n) __________ is produced whenever one atom loses an electron or electrons and another atom gains an electron or electrons.
ionic bond
An atom has an atomic number that is equal to its number of _______.
protons