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142 Cards in this Set

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ALT
alanine transferase
ALP
alkaline phosphatase (liver function test)
BM
bowel movement
BMI
body mass index
DM
diabetes mellitus
EGD
esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ESWL
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
GB
gallbladder
GERD
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI
gastrointestinal
HAV
hepatitis A virus
HBV
hepatitis B virus
HCV
hepatitis C virus
HDV
hepatitis D virus
HEV
hepatitis E virus
HSV
herpes simplex virus
IBD
inflammatory bowel disease
IC
irritable colon
lap
laparotomy
LFT
liver function test
NG tube
nasogastric tube
RDA
recommended dietary allowance
SGOT
serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (enzyme test of heart and liver function)
SGPT
serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (enzyme test of liver function, now called ALT)
TPN
total parenteral nutrition
UGI
upper gastrointestinal (or upper GI) series
inability of a circular muscle, esp. of the esophagus or rectum, to relax, resulting in widening of the structure above the muscular constriction.
achalasia
loss of thirst; also : abnormal and especially prolonged abstinence from the intake of fluids
adipsia
Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives.
amylase
An opening created by surgery, trauma, or disease between two or more normally separate spaces or organs.
anastomosis
accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen
ascites
The congenital absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular passage such as the anus, intestine, or external ear canal
atresia
a suspension of barium sulfate injected into the lower bowel to render it radiopaque, usually followed by injection of air to inflate the bowel and increase definition, and used in the radiographic diagnosis of intestinal lesions
barium enema
a yellow or greenish viscid alkaline fluid secreted by the liver and passed into the duodenum where it aids especially in the emulsification and absorption of fats
bile
A red bile pigment derived from the degradation of hemoglobin during the normal and abnormal destruction of red blood cells
bilirubin
a serious eating disorder that occurs chiefly in females, is characterized by compulsive overeating usually followed by self-induced vomiting or laxative or diuretic abuse, and is often accompanied by guilt and depression
bulimia
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius that is equal to 1000 gram calories or 3.968 Btu
calorie
a parasitic fungus that can infect the mouth or the skin or the intestines or the vagina
Candida albicans
Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet of animals. These compounds are produced by photosynthetic plants and contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, usually in the ratio 1:2:1.
carbohydrates
A physiological sphincter at the esophagogastric junction
cardiac sphincter
Decay of a bone or tooth. Dental plaque formed by bacteria initiates a progressive process of decay that, if left unchecked, leads to tooth loss
caries
An agent for purging the bowels, especially a laxative
cathartic
The large blind pouch forming the beginning of the large intestine
cecum
A chronic hereditary malabsorption disease characterized by sensitivity to gluten and atrophy of the mucosa of the upper small intestine, manifested by diarrhea, steatorrhea, and nutritional and vitamin deficiencies
celiac disease
Inflammation of the lips or of a lip, with redness and the production of fissures radiating from the angles of the mouth
cheilitis
formation of an opening between the cecum and the ileum
cecoileostomy
Suturing of the lip
cheilorrhaphy
inflammation of the bile ducts
cholangitis
gallbladder
cholecyst
pertaining to communication between the gallbladder and stomach.
cholecystogastric
of or relating to the common bile duct
choledochal
surgical creation of a passage uniting the common bile duct and the jejunum
choledochojejunostomy
Crushing a gallstone with the common bile duct.
choledocholithotripsy
the semifluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach into the small intestine.
chyme
a disease of the liver characterized by increase of connective tissue and alteration in gross and microscopic makeup.
cirrhosis
painful spasm of a hollow or tubular soft organ; pertaining to the large intestine.
colic
a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that causes scarring and thickening of the intestinal walls and frequently leads to obstruction.
Crohn's disease
a) have one point; a canine tooth.

b) a flap of tissue that contains a fluid, either normal or abnormal, and is lined by epithelium.
cuspid
articulated with the tongue near or touching the front teeth; interdental.
dentilingual
a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by hyperglycemia and glycosuria, resulting from inadequate production or use of insulin.
diabetes mellitus
characterized by abrupt onset of symptoms, insulinopenia, dependence on exogenous insulin to sustain life, and a tendency to develop ketoacidosis.
type I diabetes mellitus
usually characterized by a gradual onset with minimal or no symptoms of metabolic disturbance and no requirement for exogenous insulin to prevent ketonuria and ketoacidosis; dietary control with or without oral hypoglycemics is usually effective.
type II diabetes mellitus
a metabolic disease characterized by polyuria and polydipsia. It is caused by inadequate secretion or release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or inability of the kidney tubules to respond to ADH.
diabetes insipidus
The beginning portion of the small intestine, starting at the lower end of the stomach and extending to the jejunum.
duodenum
an infectious disease marked by inflammation and ulceration of the lower part of the bowels, with diarrhea that becomes mucous and hemorrhagic.
dysentery
the hard, glossy, calcareous covering of the crown of a tooth, containing only a slight amount of organic substance.
enamel
the branch of dentistry dealing with the cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases of the dental pulp, usually by removal of the nerve and other tissue of the pulp cavity and its replacement with suitable filling material; pulp canal therapy; root canal therapy.
endodontics
resulting from conditions within the organism rather than externally caused.
endogenous
incision of a constricting sphincter through an endoscope.
endoscopic sphincterotomy
The act or an instance of belching
eructation
surgical anastomosis between esophagus and duodenum
esophagoduodenostomy
Softening of the walls of the esophagus.
esophagomalacia
use of sound waves (also called shock waves) to break a kidney stone into small pieces that can more easily travel through the urinary tract and pass from the body
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy
a narrow passage or duct formed by disease or injury, as one leading from an abscess to a free surface, or from one cavity to another.
fistula
A device on which the internal structures of an optically opaque object, such as the human body, may be continuously viewed as shadowy images formed by the differential transmission of x-rays through the object
fluoroscope
the base of an organ, or the part opposite to or remote from an aperture.
fundus
Dilation of the stomach
gastrectasis
a chronic condition in which acid from the stomach flows back into the lower esophagus, causing pain or tissue damage.
gastroesophageal reflux disease. (GERD)
asurgical operation in which the stomach is sutured to the abdominal wall
gastropexy
Suture of a perforation of the stomach.
gastrorrhaphy
The firm connective tissue covered by mucous membrane that envelops the alveolar arches of the jaw and surrounds the bases of the teeth.
gingiva
Inflammation of the tongue and the gums.
gingivoglossitis
pertaining to the tongue
glossal
pain, burning, itching, and stinging of the mucous membranes of the tongue without apparent lesions of the affected area.
glossopyrosis
a hormone secreted by the pancreas that acts in opposition to insulin in the regulation of blood glucose levels.
glucagon
A monosaccharide sugar the blood that serves as the major energy source of the body; it occurs in most plant and animal tissue. Also called blood sugar.
glucose
a test for blood in urine or feces using a reagent containing guaiacum that yields a blue color when blood is present (hemoccult)
guaiac test
a condition of having offensive-smelling breath; bad breath.
halitosis
an abnormally enlarged vein mainly due to a persistent increase in venous pressure, occurring inside the anal sphincter of the rectum and beneath the mucous membrane or outside the anal sphincter and beneath the surface of the anal skin.
hemorrhoid
functional kidney failure associated with cirrhosis of the liver and characterized typically by jaundice, ascites,hypoalbuminemia, hypoprothrombinemia, and encephalopathy.
hepatorenal syndrome
fever blister; a reddish, raised, fluid-filled vesicle that develops on the skin or mucous membrane in nongenital areas of the body.
herpes simplex virus
an abnormal condition in which part of the stomach protrudes upward through the esophageal cleft in the diaphragm, sometimes causing a backflow of acid stomach contents into the esophagus.
hiatal hernia
The administration of nutrients by intravenous feeding, especially to individuals unable to take in food through the alimentary tract.
hyperalimentation
The terminal portion of the small intestine.
ileum
valve between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine; prevents material from flowing back from the large to the small intestine
ileocecal valve
A tooth adapted for cutting or gnawing, located at the front of the mouth along the apex of the dental arch.
incisor
A chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, especially Crohn's disease or an ulcerative form of colitis, characterized by inflammation of the intestine and resulting in abdominal cramping and persistent diarrhea.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
an acute, commonly epidemic disease, occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general prostration.
influenza
a common type of hernia in which a loop of the intestine protrudes directly through a weak area of the abdominal wall in the groin region.
inguinal hernia
a polypeptide hormone, produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, that regulates the metabolism of glucose and other nutrients.
insulin
the reception or slipping of the upper part of the small intestine into the lower
intussusception
any combination of common disturbances of the bowel, as diarrhea or constipation, occurring with abdominal pain, sometimes accompanied by psychological stress.
irritable bowel syndrome
Any of several masses of endocrine cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon.
islet of Langerhans
yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia
jaundice
An enzyme occurring in certain yeasts and in the intestinal juices of mammals and catalyzing the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose.
lactase
A disaccharide in milk that hydrolyzes to yield glucose and galactose. Also called milk sugar.
lactose
A washing, especially of a hollow organ, such as the stomach or lower bowel, with repeated injections of water.
lavage
a disorder of a mucous membrane characterized by one or more white patches, occurring most commonly on the cheek, tongue, vulva, or penis: often medically insignificant but sometimes becoming malignant.
leukoplakia
the surgical process of tying up an anatomical channel (as ablood vessel
ligation
any of a class of enzymes that break down fats, produced by the liver, pancreas, and other digestive organs or by certain plants.
lipase
Any of a group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in common organic solvents, are oily to the touch, and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells.
lipids
An abnormally small amount or a deficiency of lipids in the body.
lipopenia
formation of stony concretions or calculi in any part of the body, especially in the bladder and urinary passages
lithiasis
a pattern of symptoms including loss of appetite and bloating and weight loss and muscle pain and steatorrhea; associated with celiac disease and sprue and cystic fibrosis
malabsorption syndrome
faulty occlusion; irregular contact of opposing teeth in the upper and lower jaws.
malocclusion
the sum of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which its material substance is produced, maintained, and destroyed, and by which energy is made available.
metabolism
a tooth having a broad biting surface adapted for grinding, being one of twelve in humans, with three on each side of the upper and lower jaws.
molar
any of a group of substances resembling the mucins, occurring in connective tissue, cysts, etc.
mucoid
recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea (often alternating with periods of constipation); often associated with emotional stress
mucous colitis
A long, irregularly shaped gland in vertebrates, lying behind the stomach, that secretes digestive juices into the duodenum and insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin into the bloodstream.
pancreas
one of the salivary glands situated just in front of or below the ear. It is the largest of the salivary glands in man, and its duct opens into the interior of the mouth opposite the second molar of the upper jaw.
parotid
an erosion of the mucous membrane of the lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, caused in part by the corrosive action of the gastric juice.
peptic ulcer
the serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and folds inward to enclose the viscera.
peritoneum
any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic degradation of proteins or polypeptides to smaller amino acid polymers.
protease
an abnormal narrowing of the valve at the outlet from the stomach, preventing normal passage of food into the small intestine.
pyloric stenosis
a chronic form of periodontitis occurring in various degrees of severity, characterized in its severe forms by the formation of pus in the pockets between the roots of the teeth and their surrounding tissues, and frequently accompanied by the loosening and subsequent loss of the teeth.
pyorrhea
A fold, crease, or wrinkle, as in the lining of the stomach. Often used in the plural.
rugae
rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria, causing food poisoning, typhoid, and paratyphoid fever in humans and other infectious diseases in domestic animals.
salmonella
A serous membrane, especially one that lines the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, enclosing their contents.
serosa
inflammation of one or more of the salivary glands.
sialadenitis
Formation or presence of a salivary calculus.
sialolithiasis
An S-shaped section of the colon between the descending section and the rectum.
sigmoid colon
recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea (often alternating with periods of constipation); often associated with emotional stress
spastic colon (syn. ibs)
an artificial opening between two hollow organs or between one hollow organ and the outside of the body, constructed to permit the passage of body fluids or waste products.
stoma
An abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage.
stricture
a sore on the skin or a mucous membrane, accompanied by the disintegration of tissue, the formation of pus, etc.
ulcer
the surgical severance of vagus nerve fibers, performed to reduce acid secretion by the stomach.
vagotomy
A mixed nerve that arises from numerous small roots from the side of the medulla oblongata and supplies the pharynx, larynx, lungs, heart, esophagus, stomach, and most of the abdominal viscera.
vagus nerve
An abnormally dilated or swollen vein, artery, or lymph vessel.
varices
A wormlike intestinal diverticulum starting from the blind end of the cecum in the lower right-hand part of the abdomen and ending in a blind extremity.
vermiform appendix
A gastroplasty for the treatment of morbid obesity in which an upper gastric pouch is formed by a vertical staple line, with a cloth band applied to prevent dilation at the outlet into the main pouch.
vertical banded gastroplasty
a torsion, or twisting, of the intestine, causing intestinal obstruction.
volvulus