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57 Cards in this Set

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Label the Neuron
See above labeled Neuron
What are the four functional zones of a neuron?
Receptive zone
Trigger zone
Conducting zone
Secretory zone
Receptive zone consists of...
Dendrites and Cell body
Trigger zone consists of...
Axon Hillock
Conducting zone consists of...
Axon
Secretory zone consists of...
Telodendria and terminal boutons
Amitotic
Unable to go through mitosis.
What accumulates in the terminal bouton?
(K+) Potassium
What are the three ways to get rid of extra neurotransmitters?
Reuptake
Phagocytosis
Enzymatic degradation
_____ are pumped out for every _____ that are pumped in.
3 Na+ for every 2 K+
What will happen if Na+ and K+ reach equilibrium across these cells? What prevents this?
You will die.

The pumps.
Voltage
Voltage is a measure of the amount of difference in electrical charge between two points.
Where are Ligand gates found?
Only found in cell body and dendrites
Where are Voltage gates found?
Only found on axon hillock, axon, telodendria, and terminal boutons.
Resting membrane potential
The potential across the membrane when the cell is at rest (i.e. when there is no signaling activity. -70mV
Polarized
?
Current
The flow of electrical charge from point to point.
In the body, electrical currents are due to what?
Are due to the movement of ions across cellular membranes.
What is a reflex?
A reflex is a reaction to stimuli; involuntary motor responses.
Somatic reflex
Reflexes that activate skeletal muscle.

(rapid withdrawl of hand from hot object)
Examples of somatic reflexes are?
Abdominal, Achilles, Corneal, crossed extensor, gag, patellar, and plantar reflexes.
Simple stretch reflex
Two-neuron, monosynaptic reflex arc.
Examples of simple stretch reflexes are?
Achilles and Patellar reflexes
Examples of superficial cord reflexes are...
Abdominal and plantar reflexes.
Autonomic reflexes
Reflexes that activate smooth or cardiac muscle and/or glands.
Examples of autonomic reflexes are...
Ciliospinal and pupillary light reflexes.
Name two cord-mediated reflexes
Plantar and Achilles reflexes.
Name two somatic reflexes in which the higher brain centers participate
Corneal & gag reflexes
or
abdominal & plantar reflexes.
Name the division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for these reflexes..
Ciliospinal? Salivary? and Pupillary light?
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
Parasympathetic
Somatic
Voluntary
Autonomic
Involuntary
What is the difference between Basic and Learned reflexes
Basic you are born with (breathing) and learned you learned (like walking).
3 factors that may modify reaction time to a stimulus...
How sensitive are your receptors, how fast are your nerves, and the number of nerves responding.
What are the 5 components of a reflex arc?
Receptor
Sensory neuron
Integration center
Motor neuron
Effector
Receptor
is the site of stimulus action
Sensory neuron
transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
Integration center
consists of one or more synapses in the CNS
Motor neuron
Conducts efferent impulses from the integration center to an effector organ.
Effector
Responds to efferent impulses characteristically (by contracting or secreting respectively).
Stretch reflexes
are for maintaining posture, balance, and locomotion.
Crossed extensor reflex
Consists of flexor or withdrawl reflex followed by extension of the opposite limb.
Superficial cord reflexes
Are initiated by stimulation of the receptors in the skin or nucosae.
Can a cell body and cell body synapse with each other?
No
Neurons can be classified structurally by the number of processes extending from their cell body. Which is the most common neuron type in humans?
Multiplolar

(Over 99% of neurons in humans are multipolar.)
Somatic sensory afferents transmit impulses from the _________to the CNS.
The skin
The interior of a nerve cell has a slight excess of negative charge because
Potassium diffuses out of the cell.
The Nissl bodies seen in the neuron cell body represents which cellular organelle?
Rough endoplasmic reticulium
Bundles of neuron processes are called _____in the CNS and ______ in the PNS.
Tracts in CNS
Nerves in PNS
Describe the membrane situation in the resting state in the neuron?
All the voltage-gated Na and K channels are closed
What lines the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord and provides a barrier between the CSF and nervous tissue?
Ependymal cells
Is slow conduction of nerve impulses associated with a myelinated nerve fiber?
No
Is direct flow of ions from one neuron to the next involved in the transfer of information across a chemical synapse?
No
Which of the following electrical event occurs when a certain threshold is reached?
a
Which of the following factors is associated with increased conduction velocity in an axon?
a
Hyperpolarization is produced which spreads to the axon hillock is a characteristic of the action of an______ but not in an ______ ?
IPSP not EPSP
A potential of –--90 mV would be considered to be
Hyperpolarized
During which phase of an action potential are voltage-gated K channels open, while voltage gated Na channels are closed?
Hyperpolarization