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112 Cards in this Set

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What's the cranium?
the skull - skeleton of the head
Calvaria
dome of cranium
neurocranium
calvaria + cranial base
viscerocranium
facial skeleton
Neurocranium bones
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
condyloid process
on the mandible, extends to the head which articulates with the mandibular fossae of temporal bone - TMJ
coronoid processes
insertion of the temporalis muscle; extends up right behind the back teeth, where it hides behind the zygomatic arch when the mouth is closed; the insertion of pterygoid muscle
facial bones
14
2 zygomatic, 2 maxilla, 2 palatine, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 inferior nasal concha; 1 vomer and 1 mandible.
Sutures of the skull
coronal, sagittal, lambdoidal, squamosal
8 craniometric points:
1. Nasion
2. Glabella
3. Pterion
4. Bregma
5. Vertex
6. Lambda
7. Asterion
8. Inion
Where is the nasion?
At the bridge of teh nose
what is the glabella?
The smooth point above the nasion
where is the pterion?
at the point where 4 cranial bones meet - at the level of the greater wing of the sphenoid.
What artery courses under the pterion?
The middle meningeal artery
Where is the bregma located?
Where the 2 parietal bones meet the frontal.
where is the vertex?
at the vertex
where is the lambda?
At the junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures
where is the asterion?
at the junction of the squamous and lambdoid sutures.
where is the inion?
protuberance at the back of the head
What 2 age-related skull changes occur?
1. Fontanelles in newborns
2. Mandibular recession in elderly
What are the layers of the scalp?
S-skin
C-connective tissue
A-aponeurosis
L-loose connective tissue
P-pericranium
What is characteristic about the scalp connective tissue?
Highly supplied w/ neurovascular structures
What is the aponeurosis called?
Galea aponeurotica
what is the galea aponeurotica?
A helmet like piece of tissue that connects the bellies of the occipitofrontalis and epicranius muscles.
What innervates galea aponeurot?
Facial nerve - CN VII
What are the 2 layers of the pericranium?
-Epicranium
-Endocranium
How do the pericranial layers connect?
Through skull sutures - pass from within to without.
Where are the epi/endocranium layers found?
Epi = top of cranium (external)

Endo = inside cranium (internal)
What 2 considerations are important to remember when treating scalp lacerations?
1. Profuse bleeding
2. Gaping wounds if aponeurosis is cut
What is the proper scalp composed of?
SCAL -> all stays together as one thick layer
What are the first 6 of the 16 muscles of facial expression?
(BCDDLL)
-Buccinator
-Corrigator supercilii
-Depressor anguli oris
-Depressor labii inferioris
-Levator labii superioris
-Levator labii alaeque nasi
What are the last 10 of the 16 muscles of facial expression?
(MNOOOPPRZZ)
-Mentalis
-Nasalis
-Orbicularis oculi/oris
-Occipitofrontalis
-Platysma
-Procerus
-Risorius
-Zygomaticus major/minor
What layer are these facial muscles derived from in devo?
Pharyngeal arches
What are the 2 general functions of orbicularis oculi?
1. Help control light entering eye
2. Distribute tears
2 portions of orbicularis oculi:
1. Palpebral portion
2. Orbital portion
What does the palpebral portion of orbic oculi do?
Closes eyelids voluntarily or involintarily (blinking)
What does the orbital portion of orbic oculi do?
closes lids voluntarily
What is the function of orbicularis oris?
lip movements
What is the function of zygomaticus major?
draws angle of mouth upward
what is the function of zygomaticus minor?
elevates upper lip exposing maxillary teeth
what is the function of levator labii superioris?
raises upper lip
what is the function of levator labii superioris alaeque nasi?
dilates nostril
what is the function of nasalis?
Affects nasal aperture during deep inspiration
What is the function of procerus?
draws medial angle of eyebrows inferiorly
What is the function of Corrigator supercilii?
Draws eyebrows medially and downward as in frowning or shielidng eyes from brite lite.
What is the function of the Buccinator?
Compresses the cheeks against the teeth and gums;
Attaches to pharyngeal muscles posteriorly
what is significant about the buccinator in infants?
the buccal fat pad keeps cheeks from collapsing inward during suckling.
what is the function of risorius?
participates in many facial actions
What is the function of depressor anguli oris?
draws angle of mouth down/lateral
what is the function of depressor labii inferioris?
draws lower lip downward
what does mentalis do?
raises/protrudes lower lip - drinking or pouting
what does platysma do?
produces tension in neck skin; labial part draws down lower lip
what is function of occipitofrontalis?
raises eyebrows/wrinkles forehead
What gives motor innervation to muscles of facial expression?
Facial nerve - CN VII
5 branches of CN VII
1. Temporal
2. Zygomatic
3. Buccal
4. Marginal mandibular
5. Cervical
As it enters the viscerocranium, what does the facial nerve plunge into?
The parotid gland
What is the posteriorly headed branch of CN VII? How does it get there?
Posterior Auricular branch; passes through the stylomastoid foramen
What does the posterior auricular branch of CN VII innervate?
Occipitalis
What branch of CN VII innervates frontalis?
Temporal branch
what innervates orbicularis oculi?
temporal branch (superiorly) &
zygomatic branch (inferiorly)
Which branch of the CN VII (facial) innervates the platysma?
Cervical branch
What term denotes a peripheral lesion of the facial nerve?
Bells Palsy
What are the 4 characteristics of bells palsy to take note of?
1. Facial muscle paralysis
2. Can't close eyelids
3. Mouth angle droops
4. Forehead doesn't wrinkle
Recap; what connective tissue connects frontalis and occipitalis mucles?
Epicranial aponeurosis (galea)
What 3 nerves recieve sensory information from the face and scalp?
1. Trigeminal V
2. Cervical n. 2
3. Cervical n. 3
In general what is CN V responsible for?
-Motor innervation of muscles of mastication
-Sensation of the face
Where does the sensory info recieved by CN V branches get sent to?
trigeminal ganglion; then to the sensory root.
What are the divisions of CN V?
1. Opthalmic (sensory only)
2. Maxillary (sensory only)
3. Mandibular (mixed)
In what part of the face does V1 provide sensation?
-Top of skull in line w/ ear
-Tip of nose just above opening
-from corner of nose to corner of eye to high up on temporals.
In what part of the face does V2 provide sensation?
-High up on temporals peak
-Down around corner of eye to tip of nose above nostril
-upper lip to mid cheek then back up to the peak
In waht part of the face does V3 provide sensation?
-Where V1 stops high up on temporals
-Where V2 peaks on temporals
-Just under chin, along jaw, up to ear adn very front of it. Back up to top of temporal in line with ear.
What nerve provides sense info from the back of the skull?
Dorsal rami of C2 and C3
What nerve provides sensory info from the ear, just behind the ears, and sides of the neck?
Ventral rami of C2 and C3
What problem is usually seen with CN V?
Trigeminal neuralgia - intermittent excruciating pain is felt; usually assoc. w/ V2
What 2 main arteries give vascular supply to the face?
1. External carotid
2. Internal carotid
How many branches of ext. carotid feed the face? acronym?
6: FASTPO
What are the 6 branches of external carotid?
1. Facial a (which ends in)
2. Angular a
3. Sup/inf labial aa.
4. Transverse facial
5. Posterior auricular
6. Occipital
which are branches of the facial artery?
Angular
Sup/inf labial
What is the transverse facial artery a branch of?
Superficial temporal a - just another branch of the ext. carotid.
What 2 branches does the internal carotid supply to the face?
1. Supratrochlear (from opthalm)
2. Supraorbital (from opthalmic)
Where is the facial artery?
in the jaw region
Where is teh angular artery?
in the corner of the eye
Where are the superior/inferior labial arteries?
above/below the lips
What do the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins drain into?
Combine to join w/ angular vein
What/where is the retromandibular vein?
The union of the maxillary vein and superficial temporal vein; exits the face just under ear.
What happens to the retromandibular vein?
Splits to send blood to both internal and external jugulars.
What does retromandibular v. send to external jugular vein?
-Posterior retromandib branch
-Posterior auricular vein
What does retromandibular v. send to internal jugular vein?
-Anterior retromandib branch
-Facial vein
What separates the internal and external jugular veins?
Sternocleidomastoid
What is thrombophlebitis of the facial vein?
Spread of infection via facial vein communication w/ opthalmic vein and cavernous sinus - spreads superficial infections to the brain.
What are the 2 types of facial lymphatic drainage to consider?
-Deep
-Superficial
What is the flow of superficial lymphatic drainage?
-Lymph from superfic face/scalp collects in vessels
-Vessels drain into superfic nodes at head/neck junction
-Lymphs flows to deep cervical lymph nodes
What is the flow of deep lymphatic drainage?
-Tongue & tonsils drain to deep cervical lmph nodes
-Deep lymph nodes located around IJV
What are the 8 structures of the outer ear?
LASHCAT
Lobule
Antihelix
Scaphoid fossa
Helix
Concha
Antitragus
Tragus
what are 2 alternate names for the outer ear?
auricle or pinna
what is the tragus?
the little flap above the opening to the ear
what is the antitragus?
the flap across from the tragus
what is the concha?
the flatbed of the ear opening
where is the lobule?
the ear lobe; did u really need this flashcard?
not really but im bored
ok then
where are the helix/antihelix?
Helix = top part of ear
Antihelix = skin just inside helix
What separates the helix and antihelix?
Scaphoid fossa
What is the external acoustic meatus?
The canal extending from the superficial ear down to the middle ear
What separates the outer/middle ear?
Tympanic membrane
What are the 3 main features of the middle ear?
-Auditory ossicles
-Muscles
-Eustachian tube
What are the 3 auditory ossicles?
1. Malleus
2. Incus
3. Stapes
What is the function of the auditory ossicles?
To mechanically transfer acoustic energy from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear oval window.
What are the muscles of the middle ear and their innervations?
-Stapedius - CN VII
-Tensor tympani - V3
What is the purpose of having middle ear muscles?
To dampen particularly loud sounds.
Where does sound go after passing through the ear?
To the inner ear auditory canal.
What are 2 extra names for the auditory canal?
-Eustachian tube
-Pharyngotympanic tube
What is the auditory canal's function?
To equalize middle ear pressure w/ atmospheric pressure.