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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
first 8 wks of development - mostly qualitative change
embyogenesis is aka
fetal period
8-39 weeks - mostly quantitative change
study of birth defects - origins and causes
genes in human genome
number of prots
3x the genes 3X35,000 - blows the one gene - one prot hypothesis out of water
complex of DNA and prots (histones)
chormatin's basic unit of structure
octamer of eight proteins and ~140 bps of DNA
link b/w nucleosomes
linker DNA and H1 histones (pg 5 for figure)
nuclesome function
keep DNA tightly bound so no expression - inactive state
inactive DNA is known as?
DNA must be uncoiled from beads to undergo DNA transcription - that chromatin is now referred to as?
promoter region
binds RNA polymerase for initiation of transcription
transcription initiation site
RNA expression starts here
translation initiation site
AUG site - 1st AA in prot
translation termination site
UAG, UAA, UGA - code for H2O - stop translation
3' untranslated region
poly A tail addition
poly A tail function
stabilize mRNA, increase half life. Allows exit to nucleus. Allows translation to proceed
what is the TATA box
promoter - RNA polym binding site
DNA transcription direction
5' to 3'
RNA production direction
3' to 5'
transcription factors
additional proteins needed to facilitate RNA polymerase binding
TFs activate or inhibit?
both, they just do whatever the signal directed
how may a TF activate
TF may uncoil DNA. ie) euchormatin
enhancers - define
DNA regulatory sequences that control Promoter region access
location of enhancers
unlike promoters which are directly upstream to start site, these mothers are located anywhere on DNA
enhancers - how do they work
Bind TFs to further regulate gene. diff enhancers can control same gene in diff tissues to produce something totally diff
an "inhibitory enhancer"
domains of TFs
DNA binding domain to bind DNA
Transactivation domain - actual switch part to activate or inhibit transcription of gene whose promoter or enhancer it has bound
intial transcript of RNA
nRNA (nuclear RNA)
spliced form ready to go to nucleus for translation
alternative splicing
provides for way to produce more prots per gene
splicing NZs
what are splicosomes made of
snRNA and proteins
various proteins derived from same gene
splice variants OR splice isoforms