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30 Cards in this Set

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1800 Election
The two Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr defeated Federalist John Adams, but tied with each other. The final decision went the House of Representatives, where there was another tie. After a long series of ties in the House, Jefferson was finally chosen as president. Burr became vice-president. This led to the 12th Amendment, which requires the president and vice-president of the same party to run on the same ticket.
John Winthrop
In 1629, he became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, establishing a theocracy and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. Winthrop landed first at Salem but then eventually made Boston the colonial seat of government. A Puritan with strong religious believes. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
King Philip’s War
In 1675, there was a series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won and victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion. Though failed, King Philip’s War slowed the westward march of English settlement in New England for several decades. But the war inflicted a lasting defeat on New England’s Indians. They never again seriously threatened the colonists.
John Rolfe
John Rolfe was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy. He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
Great Awakening (1739-1744)
Puritanism had declined by the 1730s, and people were upset about the decline in religious piety. The Great Awakening was a revival of religious zeal heralded by Jonathan Edwards that spread through the colonies; Begun in 1734, it reached its peak in 1741, the Great Awakening brought religion to a prominent position in society. It was one of the first events to unify the colonies.
Albany Plan of Union
During the French and Indian War, Benjamin Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the British government. The Albany Congress (1754) enlisted Iroquois support. The Plan of Union described a chief executive (President-General of the United Colonies), a Grand Council of 48 chosen by colonial assemblies. This body would oversee colonial interests of defense, Native American relations, trade, and settlement of the West. Colonials rejected the plan.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War and the French and Indian War. France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British. As compensation for Florida, Spain received Louisiana from France. American soldiers thereby gain confidence in fighting; ended myth of British invincibility. It led to more colonial unity but created a huge debt for England which ended the era of Salutary Neglect and the enforcement of mercantilism which results in flames of unhappiness and animosity in the psyche of Americans.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Patrick Henry (1736-1799)
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in Virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." Henry served as Governor of Virginia from 1776-1779 and 1784-1786, and was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution. Along with Samuel Adams and Thomas Paine, he was one of the most influential advocates of the American Revolution and republicanism, especially in his denunciations of corruption in government officials and his defense of historic rights.
Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations. The Committees became particularly active following the Gaspee Incident. The network of committees was the beginning of what later became a formal political union among the colonies.
Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of several British North American colonies which met from May 10, 1775, to March 1, 1781. The First Continental Congress had sent entreaties to the British King to stop the Intolerable Acts and had created the Articles of Association to establish a coordinated protest of the Intolerable Acts; in particular, a boycott had been placed on British goods. That Congress had provided that the Second Continental Congress would meet on May 10, 1775, to plan further responses if the British government had not repealed or modified the Intolerable Acts. It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
Common Sense
A British citizen, Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense, published on January 1, 1776, to encourage the colonies to seek independence. It spoke out against the unfair treatment of the colonies by the British government and was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution. It serves as propaganda and also a justification of American Revolution and independence.
Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine (January 29, 1737 – June 8, 1809) was a radical pamphleteer who anticipated and helped foment the American Revolution through his powerful writings, most notably Common Sense, an incendiary pamphlet advocating independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. It was instrumental in turning public opinion in favor of the Revolution. It serves as propaganda and also a justification of American Revolution and independence.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
The Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed on September 3, 1783, and ratified by the U.S. Congress on January 14, 1784, formally ended the American Revolutionary War between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the United States of America that had rebelled against British rule in 1776. It granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. Also, it also stated that United States have to prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists.
Shay’s Rebellion
Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation. Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of those in debt. The rebellion started on August 29, 1786. A Massachusetts militia that had been raised as a private army defeated the main Shaysite force on February 3, 1787. The federal government was too weak to help Boston remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation were not working effectively. The lack of an institutional response to the uprising energized calls to reevaluate the Articles of Confederation, giving strong impetus to the Constitutional Convention, begun in May, 1787.
Annapolis Convention, 1786
It was a precursor to the Constitutional Convention of 1787. A dozen commissioners form New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Virginia met to discuss reform of interstate commerce regulations, to design a U.S. currency standard, and to find a way to repay the federal government’s debts to Revolutionary War veterans. Little was accomplished, except for the delegates to recommend that a further convention be held to discuss changes to the form of the federal government; the idea was endorsed by the Confederation Congress in February, 1878, which called for another convention to be held in May that year in Philadelphia.
The label Federalist refers to two major groups in the history of the United States of America: Federalists were those statesmen and public figures supporting ratification of the proposed Constitution of the United States between 1787 and 1789; Federalists were also those statesmen and public figures supporting the administrations of President George Washington (1789 – 1797) and President John Adams (1797 – 1801), as well as the related political alliances after 1801. Federalist programs were the National Bank and taxes to support the growth of industry.
Democratic-Republican party
A former major political party in the United States in the early 19th century created by Jefferson and Madison in order to oppose the economic and foreign policies of the ruling Federalist Party, led by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. In foreign policy, Republicans generally favored France and opposed Britain, going to war in 1812 with Britain. The Republicans insisted on a strict construction of the Constitution, and denounced many of Hamilton's proposals (especially the national bank) as unconstitutional. Republicans promoted states' rights and the primacy of the yeoman farmer, as opposed to bankers, industrialists and merchants. Thus from 1792 to 1816 the Republicans opposed such Federalist policies as high tariffs, a navy, military spending, a national debt, and a national bank. After 1816, however, the party split on these issues. The Republicans elected Thomas Jefferson as President (1800 and 1804).
National Republican
The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed for a relatively brief period in the 1820s and 1830s. Mostly conservative. Formed from Republicans of one party. Leads to formation of modern Republican party.
The Anti-Federalist Party was an unofficial coalition in late 18th Century American politics. They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican party. Though not a true political party, it left a major legacy to the country
The Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution. "The Federalist,#10" This essay from the Federalist Papers proposed setting up a republic to solve the problems of a large democracy (anarchy, rise of factions which disregard public good). The Federalist Papers serve as a primary source for interpretation of the Constitution, as they outline the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government.
Edmund Randolph
Edmund Randolph had been General Washington's aide-de-camp at the outbreak of the Revolution, and served both as a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress and as Governor of Virginia from 1786-1788. He submitted the Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention. From 1789-1794 he served as U.S. Attorney General, and then succeeded Jefferson as Sec. of State. In 1795 he resigned form office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington’s administration against Great Britain, although his name was eventually cleared by the French government.
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.
Washington’s Farewell Address
George Washington's Farewell Address was a written address by George Washington to the people of the United States at the end of his second term as President of the United States. It appeared in many American newspapers on September 19, 1796. Technically speaking, it was not an address, but an open letter to the public published in the form of a speech. Washington's fellow Americans gave it the title of "Farewell Address" to recognize it as the President's valedictory to public service for the new Republic. In the address, he warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
One of the two major political parties in the United States. Different members of the Democratic Party hold different political views, and the party platform may change from administration to administration. Nevertheless, the Democratic Party has generally draws support from working class people, women and minorities; and has traditionally supported expanding the level of government participation in the society and economy.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were important political statements in favor of states rights written by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1798. They were passed by the two states in opposition to the federal Alien and Sedition Acts. They declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Bacon’s Rebellion
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkeley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness. While indenture servants from Europe continued to play a role in Virginia after the rebellion, African slave imports grew rapidly and new laws made slavery lifelong and passed on to own's children, creating a racially-based class system with Africans at the bottom and even the poorest European indentured servants above.
James Oglethorpe
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Many colonists felt that Oglethorpe was a dictator, and that (along with the colonist’s dissatisfaction over not being allowed to own slaves) caused the colony to break down and Oglethorpe to lose his position as governor.
William Bradford
William Bradford (1590 – May 9, 1657), a Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. As Governor of the Plymouth Colony, he was the second signer and primary architect of the Mayflower Compact. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks. As Governor of Plymouth, Bradford is also credited as being the first to proclaim what popular American culture viewed as the first Thanksgiving.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
An Indian uprising in 1763 after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed. Crushed by white retaliation, disease distributed stand still at frontier. Convinced British the need to establish Indian-white relations to keep stationed troops.