Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/37

Click to flip

37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Atoms react with one another to form __________.
molecules
__________ bonding can occur between polar molecules.
Hydrogen
Solution in which pH is less than 7;substance that contributes or liberates hydrogen ions in a solution;opposite of base?
acid
Molecules that dissociate in water, releasing hydrogen ions?
acids
Molecules that either take up hydrogen ions or release hydroxide ions?
base
In some covalent bonds, the electrons are shared unequally, and the result is a __________ molecule.
polar
Solution in which pH is more than 7;a substance that contributes or liberates hydroxide ions in a solution;alkaline;opposite of acid.
base
The prescence of __________ helps keep the pH of body fluids constant at about neutral, or pH7, because a __________ can absorb both hydrogen (H+) and hydroxide (OH-).
buffer
buffer
Significant ions in the body:
___________ is found in hemoglobin;combines with oxygen. Lack of sufficient __________ in the blood is called "iron deficiency anemia".
Iron
Anemia is characterized by a tired feeling and is due to a low red blood cell count or to an insufficient amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells. __________ is a part of the hemoglobin molecule that transports oxygen.
iron
Because of __________ bonding, water heats up and cools down slowly, and this helps keep body temperature within __________ limits.
hydrogen
normal
__________ is the most abundant molecule in living organisms, making up 60-70% of total body weight.
Water
Water is a __________ molecule and acts as a __________;it dissolves varous chemical substances and facilitates chemical reactions.
polar
solvent
Substances like salts, acids, and bases that dissociate (that is, release ions when in water) are called __________.
electrolytes
The electrolyte balance in the blood and body tissues is important for good __________.
health
The attraction between oppositely charged ions forms an __________ bond.
ionic
Ionic bonds are typically found in __________ compounds.
inorganic
sodium chloride is the chemical name for plain old __________ __________.
table salt
Following one type of reaction, positively and negatively charged ions form a __________ in which they are ionically bonded.
molecule
Significant ions in the body:
Chloride is found in body ________.
fluids
Significant ions in the body.
Found in body fluids;important in muscle contraction and nerve conduction.
Sodium
Significant ions in the body:
__________ is found primarily inside cells;important in muscle contraction(including the beating of the heart) and nerve conduction.
potassium
Significant ions in the body:
__________ is found in bones, teeth, and the high-energy molecule ATP.
Phosphate
Significant ions in the body:
Calcium is found in bones and teeth;important in __________ contraction.
muscle
Humans are made of __________.
chemicals
The body needs __________ to maintain bones, __________ to prevent anemia, and adequate __________ __________ intake to build muscles.
calcium
iron
amino acid
Because the human body is composed only of __________, anatomy and physiology students must have a basic understanding of chemistry.
chemicals
Elements contain tiny particles called __________.
atoms
Only one type of __________ is present in each element, and therefore, the same name is used for both.
atom
An __________ is the smallest unit of matter to enter into chemical reactions.
atom
List the three subatomic particles of an atom.
protons, neutrons, and electrons
A central __________ contains the protons and neutrons, while the __________ are located outside the nucleus in shells.
nucleus
electrons
The innermost electron shell has the lowest energy level and can hold __________ electrons.
two
The outer shell of a carbon atom can hold __________ electrons.
8
An atom is most stable when the outermost shell has __________(how many) electrons.
eight
Atoms that have the same __________ __________ and differ only in the number of neutrons are called isotopes.
atomic number
When atoms give up or take on electrons in order to achieve a stable outermost energy shell it is called an __________ reaction.
ionic