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55 Cards in this Set

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Subcutaneous
Underneath the skin, NOT part of the skin
Hair Follicles
The kind of follicles that produce hair.
Sebaceous glands
The kind of glands that are associated with a hair shaft or follicle.
Sebaceous follicle
The kind of sebaceous gland NOT associated with a hair. NO HAIR in the one called a follicle. Weird.
Pimple
A sebaceous follicle with a white blood cell attack on bacteria (infection), causes acne (pimple)
Lines of Cleavage
The way the skin grows on the body. Stretch marks can be found along them. Surgeons cut along them.
Lichtenberg figures
These last a few hours or days, it's a reddening of the blood vessls after being hit by lightning or being shocked by electricity.
Dust mite
Dust is dead skin, and these dermatophagoides "skin eaters" actually eat the edible flakes of keratin, mold, and other organisms. They are microscopic.
Hair Shaft Anatomy
intubated, echoes the structure of skin.
Hair Shaft Anatomy

Papilla
"Little Lump" Lowest layer, holds the hair in place. Blood vessels feed the living portin of the hair here.
Hair Anatomy

Matrix
The second layer, the core of the dividing cells right above the papilla.
Hair Anatomy

Medulla
"Middle" or third layer of the hair, surrounding the matrix and starting to harden.
Hair Anatomy

Cortex
Means "Outside" , it's the fourth layer of the hair, on top of the medula.
Hair Anatomy

Glassy Membrane
The fifth layer, it forms outside the cortex. It is analagous to the stratum lucidum of the skin. Glassy.
Hair Shaft
The portion of hair above the skin surface. Except near the bulb all the tissue is dead.
Melanin in terms of hair color
There's really only one hair color, which is melanin. Different degrees of melanin create shades of hair. Melanin is a multiply expressive allele. Different amounts in different body parts create different shades of hair color on same body.
Trichosiderin
Carrot Top Hair, orangey red. People with this hair are prone to allergies. It is the one exception to the melanin rule of hair color.
What produces white hair?
Melanocytes develop air bubbles to produce white hair.
Shape of hair, straight or curly
Straight hair is circular (round), Wavy hair or curly hair is more or less oval shaped. Determined by DNA from the lower part of the hair.
Number of Hairs on Body
5 million hairs total, 2% on head, 98% on body, though fine and spread out.
Thickness of Hair
Approximately 3 mm thick.
Rate of Hair Growth
Hair grows about five inches a year.
How many scalp hairs does the average person lose daily?
50-100 hairs per day.
Factors that influence hair loss.
Stress/anxiety, high fever, excess of Vitamin A, Hormones (pregnancy), drugs, radiation, Dietary Factors.
Types of Hair

Vellus
"Peach Fuzz" on surface, moreso in women.
Types of hair

Terminal Hair
Heavier and deper pigment, can be curly. Found in men, and on eyebrows.
Types of Hair

Lanugo
Fine, downy, unpigmented hair, lasts about 3 months in newborns.
Types of Hair

Vibrissae
"Guard Hairs" thick, robust ear and nose hairs, seen often in older people.
Types of Hair

Second Degree Sexual
This type of hair starts to form in puberty.
Types of Hair

Head Hair
This type of hair can be found on the head.
Hair that falls off before it gets long
Body hair, eyebrows, eyelashes.
Purpose of eyebrows
Aids in nonverbal communication.
Purpose of head hair
Protective from sun and cooling (traps water). May spread out on water for babies to hold onto. Mammals without lots of hair need a water cycle.
AAT (aquatic ape theory)
Theory that humans evolved in water as a sort of aquatic ape, walked upright for buoyancy, and taht the epiglottis is a diving reflex.
Purpose of Fingernails
Protective, especially of thin, pointy bone underneath.
Fingernails

Hyponychium
"Below Nail". Skin under the free edge of the nail.
Fingernails

Nail Bed
The skin on which the nail plate rests.
Fingernails

Nail Plate
The clear, keratinized portion of the nail.
Fingernails - Nail Plate

Root
The proximal end of a nail, underlying the nail fold.
Fingernails - Nail Plate

Body
The major portion of the nail plate, overlying the nail bed.
Fingernails - Nail Plate

Free Edge
The portion of the nail plate that extends beyond the end of the digit.
Fingernails

Hyponychium
The epithelium of the nail bed.
Fingernails

Nail fold
The fold of skin around the margins of the nail plate.
Fingernails

Nail Groove
The groove where the nail fold meets the nail plate.
Fingernails

Eponychium
Dead epidermis that covers the proximal end of the nail; commonly called the cuticle.
Fingernails

Nail Matrix
The growth zone (mitotic tissue) at the proximal end of the nail; corresponding to the stratum basale of the epidermis.
Fingernails

Lunule or Lunula
The region at the base of the nail that appears as a small white crescent because it overlies a thick stratum basale that obscures dermal blood vessels from view.
Fingernails

Phalanx
The bone underneath the nail, the tiny bone of the fingertip.
What can nails indicate about health?
Bloodflow to the nail an be measured by sensing device worn on finger. Anemia can be indicated if you press the free edge and color doesn't come back.
Indications of Yellow Nail Color
Respiratory disease, AIDS, liver disease, thyroid gland disorders
Indications of pitted or distorted nails
psoraisis, fungal infections
Indications of concave nails
some blood disorders, iron deficiency anemia
Indications of blue nails
Cyanosis, from poor circulation.
Indication of pale pink nails
anemia or circulatory problems
Calluses
Mechanical stresses to the skin cause Stratum germanitivum (basale) stem cells to divide, thickness of skin increases.