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47 Cards in this Set

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诗经 The Classic of Poetry
A collection of 305, mostly anonymous poems (and 6 without texts) from the Zhou Dynasty. One of the Confucian Classics. Because most of the Poems seem to refer to events that occurred no later than the seventh century B.C., it is assumed that the collection reached something like its present form toward the end of the seventh century B.C.. The poems were used in the Zuozhuan and Guoyu as idealized representations of the Spring and Autumn period. One of the books proscribed in the bibliocaust in 213 B.C. Note that there is no extant case of an entire poem from The Classic of Poetry being recorded in writing before the Han Dynasty, except for one poem of 7 lines from the Zhou song.
儒 Ru
The Traditionalist, or “Confucian”
焚书 Fenshu
“Burning of the books” or “bibliocaust” in 213 B.C. Ordered by the First Emperor of Qin, who wanted to destroy all “useless” books inimical to state-supported Legalism.
逸诗 Yishi
The “lost poems”, which were cited in texts from the Warring States period (479-222 B.C.) but are not in the current version of The Classic of Poetry.
三家 Sanjia “Three Schools”
Three lineages of collection of the Classic of Poetry, which differed in interpretation of particular poems, texts, individual words and also in general interpretation. The “Three Schools” are the Han, Lu, and Qi schools, the first named after the family of the masters of the school, the latter two named for regions where that particular version of The Classic of Poetry was preserved. The “Three Schools” dominated the Western Han study of The Classic of Poetry and continued to be influential in the Eastern Han. These versions of the Poems received imperial sponsorship in the Western Han.
博士 Boshi “Erudites”
Members of the Imperial Academy, established in the Western Han, who specialized in the “Three Schools.”
今文 jinwen “New Script”
Versions of the Classics reconstructed from memory after the Qin bibliocaust and written down in the new standardized script.
毛诗 Mao Shi “Mao poems”
A fourth version of the Classics of Poetry, which emerged in the Western Han. The tradition of the Mao school is traced to Mao Heng and his successor mao Chang. This version was supposed to represent an unbroken tradition back to Confucius’ disciple Zixia. The Mao tradition did not receive the support of prominent court intellectuals until it was championed by the Scholar Liu Xin. The “Mao Poems” came to be associated with the “old script” Classics; that it, pre-Qin texts of the Classics recovered in the Han, written in the non-standardized scripts of the Warring States. The “Mao poems” gradually gained prestige through the Eastern Han, eventually supplanting other schools. Current versions of The Classics of Poetry are in text and arrangement that of the “Mao Poems.”
毛亨 Mao Heng
The senior founder of the Mao school of interpretation of The Classic of Poetry. He was a client of Prince Xian of Hejian and presented at Han Jingdi[‘s court in 128 B.C. The junior Mao is Mao Chang.
子夏 Zixia
One of Confucius’ disciple, to whom the tradition of the “Mao Poems” was traced.
刘歆 Liu Xin
(d. A.D.23) A prominent court intellectual who championed the “Mao poems”
古文 guwen “old script”
Pre-Qin texts of the Classics, written in non-standardized scripts of the Warring States.
郭店 Guodian
A tomb in Jingmen, Hubei, sealed probably around 300BCE; contained cache of bamboo slips from the Warring States (五行篇)
诗 Shi “poetry”
The word Shi in The Classic of Poetry seems to have originally meant something like “the lyrics” for a song. By the time of Confucius, the term shi referred specifically to the Poems of The Classic of Poetry and to other memorized texts. By the turn of the second century, the term had loosened considerably to “verses” in general. The term shi has, probably from at least the Warring States Period, been understood in terms of a folk etymology of the character: the definition is based on dividing the character shi into its two components as shi yan zhi, or “poetry articulates what is intently on one’s mind.”
古诗 gushi “the old Poems”
A term Ban Gu, in the first century A.D., used to distinguish the Poems from later usage of the term shi.
诗言志 shi yan zhi
“Poetry articulates what is intently on one’s mind.” A definition of shi based on dividing the character shi into its components as shi yan zhi (interpreting the phonetic寺 as 志). This definition appears at the beginning of the commentary to the “Mao Poems” and remained the most widely accepted understanding of what the Poems (and poems in general) are. The implications of this definition are that the poems are not professional products of “poets,” but arise naturally from the intense concerns of a particular individual in a historical context.
删诗 shanshi “paring down the Poems”
One of two very influential theories about how the collection of the Poems was put together. It holds that Confucius selected the current three hundred Poems out of a larger corpus of three thousand and arranged them to show the moral history of the Zhou polity and society. As early as in the seventh century, scholars of The Classic of Poetry had doubted or rejected the theory of “paring down the Poems.” But the theory remained immensely attractive, in spite of its implausibility, and remained part of the cultural repertoire. This theory became one basis of explaining The Classic of Poetry as an authoritative Confucian illustration of moral history.
采诗 cai shi “gathering the Poems”
One of two very influential theories about how the collection of the Poems was put together. It holds that Poems were collected by an officer sent out by the Zhou king to inform himself of the mood of the people; these songs were adapted by the Zhou Music Master for presentation in the court. In later times the theory of “gathering the Poems” became linked to a similar theory about the Western Han “Music Bureau” (Yuefu) and a notion of the function of poetry as a voice for popular grievances, to be presented to the ruler.
乐府 yuefu
Western Han “Music Bureau”
风 feng; the “Airs”
The first and largest section of The Classic of Poetry, also called the “Airs of the Domains” 国风 (guofeng). Consists of 160 poems. Divided into various Zhou feudal domains, such as Cao, Wei, Qi, and Qin, representing a musical or cultural geography. The term feng means “wind” but was extended three interrelated semantic areas: customs (风俗), criticism/censure (讽) and moral influence.
雅 ya; the “Odes”
The second section of The Classic of Poetry, consists of 105 poems; divided between the “Great Odes” (大雅) and the “Lesser Odes”(小雅). The term ya was associated with a certain “grace” or “refinement”. The “Great Preface” to the Mao Poems holds that the “Odes” differ from the “Airs” by their reference to the entire Zhou kingdom. Many of the Odes treat topics close to the life and interests of the Zhou court.
颂 song; the “Hymns”
The final section of The Classic of Poetry. Divided into the “Zhou Hymns” (周颂), the “Shang Hymns” (商颂) and the “Lu Hymns” (鲁颂). The hymns were primarily used in the ancestral rituals.
周公 the Duke of Zhou
Brother of the Zhou founder, King Wu of Zhou.
生民 Shengmin; “She Bore the Folk”
A harvest festival poem in the “Great Odes”; tells of the miraculous birth and survival of the first Zhou ancestor Hou Ji (后稷), and his gift of grain to the Zhou people.
宣王 King Xuan
(827-782 B.C.) The military expeditions and enfeoffments from his reign were treated in a group of poems in the “Great Odes”.
四言 siyan; a four syllable line
The dominant metrical unit in the Poems
章 zhang
The number of stanzas in a poem; used in the Mao version of the Poems, in which the title comes after the text, followed by the number of stanzas and the number of lines in each stanza.
什 shi; “decades”
The “Lesser Odes,” “Greater Odes,” and the “Zhou Hymns” are grouped in “decades,” each decade named for the first poem in the group.
兴 xing; “stir feelings”
- "affective images," one of the Six Principles that inform the Poems
- figuration or method by which many of the Poems begin: usu. natural images
also from the line in the Analects: “The Master said: ‘Young ones, why not study the Poems? The Poems will let you stir feelings, observe, keep company, and express grievance.”
韩诗外传 Hanshi waizhuan; Outer Tradition of the Han Poems
The sole work surviving intact from the “Three Schools” interpretations of the Western Han. A collection of anecdotes with a passage from the Poems as apt for the situation.
- suggests free metaphorical interpretation of Shijing w/out pre-established interpretation?
郑玄 Zheng Xuan
(127-200) Student of Ma Rong (马融), a prominent Eastern Han scholar who supported the Mao version of the Poems. Zheng Xuan studied the “Three Schools” Poems and produced his own synthetic commentary, known as the “Notes” (jian, 笺 ). All present versions of The Classic of Poetry are based on a combination of Mao and Zheng Xuan known as the Mao Shi Zheng jian(毛诗郑笺 or 毛传郑笺).
孔颖达 Kong Yingda
(574-648) A scholar who led a committee to gather, synthesize and supplement scholastic commentaries of the Poems of the Six Dynasties (222-581) and Sui (581-618), on the basis of the Mao Shi Zheng jian. The work was presented to the Tang throne in 642 and received imperial sanction.
- Head compiler of 五经正义
正义 Zhengyi; the “Correct Significance”
The version of the Poems made by Kong Yingda and his committee of scholars in 6th-7th century. It is part of the Correct Significance of the Five Classics (Wujing zhengyi五经正义) and represents a synthetic work of pre-Tang and Tang classical scholarship.
故训 guxun
Glosses provided by the Mao commentary for difficult words in the Poems
小序 xiaoxu; “Little Preface”
A preface provided by the Mao commentary to each Poem; identifies the putative circumstance of each poem’s composition. The “Little Prefaces” often consist of two components—the first is a general statement of the intent of the Poem, the second elaborates the historical circumstances that occasioned the Poem or simply develops the intents of the first section.
大序 daxu; “Great Preface”
To be distinguished from the “Little Preface”; a more general statement on the Poems; is incorporated into the “Little Preface” to the first Poem in the collection, “Fishhawk” (Guanju, 关雎). Generally understood to be Confucius’ teaching on the poems, passed onto his disciple Zixia (子夏), and on in an unbroken tradition to Mao Heng. The “Great Preface” seems to be an assemblage of generally accepted principles about the Poems from the Warring States and perhaps as late as Western Han.
卫宏 Wei Hong
(fl. A.D. 48) An early Eastern Han Scholar to whom the composition of the “preface(s)” was attributed in a passage in the Hou Han shu (后汉书; The History of the Later [Eastern] Han from the early 5th century).
六义 Liuyi; the “Six Principles”
Listed in the “Great Preface”; inform the Poems; the order traditionally presented is: 1) “Airs” (风); 2) “exposition” (赋); 3) “comparison” (比); 4) “affective image” (兴); 5) “Odes” (雅); 6) “Hymns” (颂).
朱熹 Zhu Xi
(1130-1200) Neo-Confucian philosopher; author of influential twelfth century commentary to the Poems (诗集传; Collected Traditions on the Poems); he revised some of Mao’s judgments in regard to “affective image”; classified the remaining Poems as either “exposition” (i.e. straightforward, unfigured mode of presentation) or “comparison” (i.e. simile or very obvious metaphor).
诗本义 Shi benyi; The Original Significance of the Poems
A commentary by Ouyang Xiu zz欧阳修 (1007-1072) on The Classic of Poetry. Adopts a relatively cautious approach, holding the received tradition in some cases, but in others disputing and expressing skepticism about the Mao “prefaces”.
诗集传 Shi jizhuan; Collected Traditions on the Poems
Zhu Xi’s commentary on the Poems. Written in the twelfth century. The commentary combined common sense with his vision of the ethical significance of the Classics. It remained the dominant force in the interpretation of The Classic of Poetry through most of the Ming (1368-1644).
朱子语类 Zhuzi yulei
Zhu Xi’s sayings collected by his disciples.
方言 Fangyan
The late Western Han dialect dictionary by Yang Xiong (53 B.C.—A.D. 18).
谣谚 yaoyan
Gnomic and political verses, scattered btw. Shijing and Han
击壤歌 Jirang ge “Song of the Soil-Striking Game”
A text (short stanzas?) among the pre-Qin and Han texts attributed to high antiquity
- now recognized as spurious, but held true in pre-modern
石鼓文 shigu wen; “Stone Drum Texts”
The most important group of poems between the Poems and the Han. They are monoliths inscribed with poems very similar to the Poems. They came from the state of Qin in the Warring States. First discovered in the Zhenguan Reign (627-649) of the Tang, they inspired a lineage of poems by Tang and Song poets such as Wei Yingwu, Han Yu, and Su Shi.
诗持也
"the poem holds" - alternative theory to 诗言志 found in the "Apocrypha" of the Poems
- i.e. the poem is a vehicle that "holds" feelings