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34 Cards in this Set

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the struggle of the former British colonies in America to gain their independence from Britain. Also called the War for Independence or the American Revolution.
Revolutionary War (7)
a 15-year-old Connecticut volunteer in the Revolutionary War who saw action in New York City and wrote about his experiences.
Joseph Martin (7)
supported the well-trained well-equipped British army, more than 400 of their ships bobbed in New York Harbor.
Royal Navy (7)
the major landing port of the British during the Revolutionary War, it was rumored that the British have landed 25,000 soldiers and more than 400 British ships.
New York Harbor (7)
the city where 15-year-old Joseph Martin and other volunteers for the Continental Army signed to go to defend.
New York (7)
the country that supplied 90% of the Americans' gunpowder during the first two years of the Revolutionary War.
France (7)
professional soldiers who fight for anyone who will pay them.
mercenaries (7)
30,000 German mercenaries hired by George III to fight against the Americans during the Revolutionary War.
Hessians (7)
the man chosen by George III to run the war who had no real sense of how to defeat the rebels. He kept changing plans and generals, hoping that some combination of the two would bring him an easy victory.
George Germain (7)
British general who was ordered to capture New York City to serve as a base of operations for British troops.
William Howe (7)
a decisive battle that took place in New York on August 27, 1776 when the inexperienced Americans were no match for the British, with their greater numbers and superior training. In two days of fighting, the British lost only 377 men, while the Americans lost 1,407.
Brooklyn (7)
an American officer who adviced Washington to retreat in New York City.
Thomas Mifflin (7)
Thomas Paine's new pamphlet about the Revolution which urged the soldiers to continue the fight. "These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine Patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman."
The Crisis (7)
the location of the Hessian troops who were camped for the winter, Washington outlined a plan to attack them.
Trenton (7)
the second decisive win by Gen. Washington, the Americans captured another 300 British troops barely a week after Trenton.
Princeton (7)
an overall plan (for example, for winning a war). Specific ways of carrying out a plan are called tactics.
strategy (7)
to divide the American rebels and to cut New England off from the rest of the states, Gen. Germain planned to take control of this waterway area in New York.
Hudson River Valley (7)
the British general who, with his 8,000 British soldiers and Indian warriors, left Canada in June 1777 to move his army south to Albany, New York and meet up with General Howe who was supposed to march his army north from New York City.
Gen. John Burgoyne (7)
the British general who was ordered to march his army north from New York City to meet up with Gen. John Burgoyne who was in Albany, New York.
Gen. William Howe (7)
Burgoyne's surrender to Washington at this place on the Hudson River marked a turning point in the war.
Saratoga Springs (7)
Joseph Martin described this place as: "We had nothing to eat for two or three days previous.... But we must now have what Congress said, a sumptuous [lavish] Thanksgiving.... It gave each and every man a gill [a few ounces] of rice and a tablespoon of vinegar! The army was now not only starved but naked, the greatest part were not only shirtless and barefoot, but destitute of [without] all other clothing, especially blankets."
Valley Forge (7)
a volunteer from Prussia, he was put by Gen. Washington in charge of the training and discipline of the American troops.
Baron Friedrich von Steuben (7)
a French volunteer who helped Gen. Washington raise the troops' spirits by sharing with them the hardships of Valley Forge and even used his own money to buy the men warm clothing.
Marquis de Lafayette (7)
he replaced Gen. Howe as commander of the British forces in America and ordered his army to retreat to New York City where the Royal Navy could keep it supplied by sea.
Sir Henry Clinton (7)
although the Americans won in this battle where George Washington led his troops in an attack on retreating British forces, they were able to slip away during the night and sail away to New York.
Monmouth (7)
Gen. Clinton led a successful attack on this city to begin his new strategy called "Southern Campaign" and he moved on to take control of North and South Carolina.
Savanna (7)
he was given the command by Gen. Clinton to run the "Southern Campaign" when Clinton returned to New York after taking North and South Carolina.
Lord Charles Cornwallis (7)
soldiers who operate on their own and are not part of the regular army.
guerillas (7)
the "Swamp Fox," he was one of the guerillas who, with his band of rebels, harassed the British with hit-and-run raids, then faded into the swamps and forests like foxes.
Francis Marion (7)
the American genreal who Washington sent late in 1780 to slow the British advance through the South. He led Cornwallis' army on an exhausting chase through the Southern backcountry.
Gen. Nathaniel Greene (7)
a sleepy tobacco port on the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia where Washington, with the help of the French, surrounded Burgoyne's army.
Yorktown (7)
a slow, sad tune played in both British surrender at Saratoga and Yorktown.
"The World Turned Upside Down" (7)
the British Prime Minister who was heard saying after the defeat at Yorktown, "Oh God! It is all over!"
Lord North (7)
a formal agreement between nations.
treaty (7)