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66 Cards in this Set

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How are hormones transported to target organ or tissue? Do they go directly to target?
Distributed throughout body by circulatory system. They are indirect and do not always hit target on first pass.
How long is the duration of effect of a hormone? Are hormones usually fast acting?
Tend to have slow onset, but long-lasting effect(may take several minutes to hours to take effect and may last minutes, hours, or days)
What causes a target organ for a hormone to be affected after the hormone is no longer present?
Physiological change or response can remain after hormone has left. (Its obvious that hormones being present also cause the prolonged effect)
Give some types of hormones. (Three mentioned in class)
-Modified amino acids
- Steroid hormone
-Peptide chains
Adrenaline (Epinephrine), Epinephrine and thyroid hormones called T3 and T4 are all examples of ____(1) hormones.
Modified Amino Acids hormones
Lipids, and structures based on cholesterol are examples of _____(1) hormones.
Steroid hormones.
_______(1) hormones have less than 20 amino acids while _____(2) hormones have more than 20.
(1) Peptide chain hormones
(2) Protein hormones
Hard:
How does peptide hormone cause a response in target cell(mechanism)?
What actions do receptor molecules have?(Three mentioned in class)
Peptide hormones bind to receptor molecule on target cell surface.
-Actions:
1. Open or close ion channels(ionotropic)
2. Receptor can activate a G-protein (part of second messenger system)
3. Receptor itself can be an enzyme that is activated or deactivated by the hormone.
If this hormone reaches target these actions occur. What TYPE of hormone is this?
1. Open or close ion channels(ionotropic)
2. Receptor can activate a G-protein (part of second messenger system)
3. Receptor itself can be an enzyme that is activated or deactivated by the hormone.
Peptide hormone
How do steroid hormone cause a response in target cell(mechanism)?
What actions do steroid hormones have on cell?
Steroid hormones are surrounded by nonpolar pockets of fats coated with protein (chylomicrons) that diffuse into cell through membrane. Act directly on chromosomes and affect gene expression.
This TYPE hormone effects gene expression.
Steroid hormone.
How do Modified amino acids cause a response in target cell? Since there is more than one way, give examples of Modified AA hormones and how they act on cell.
-Modified aa like epinephrine act like peptide hormone, reacting with cell surface receptors.
-Modified amino acids like T3 and T4 from thyrod acts like steroid, diffusing into cell and modifying gene expression.
Gastrin uses slow (+,-) feedback
slow positive(+) feedback.
positive or negative feedback?
-used to hold condition constant, when condition changes, causes response in opposite direction.
Negative feedback
positive or negative feedback?
-Not used to hold conditions constant, feedback system that senses changes and responds in same direction as change. (snowball effect)
Positive Feeback
How are hormones transported to target organ or tissue? Do they go directly to target?
Distributed throughout body by circulatory system. They are indirect and do not always hit target on first pass.
How long is the duration of effect of a hormone? Are hormones usually fast acting?
Tend to have slow onset, but long-lasting effect(may take several minutes to hours to take effect and may last minutes, hours, or days)
What causes a target organ for a hormone to be affected after the hormone is no longer present?
Physiological change or response can remain after hormone has left. (Its obvious that hormones being present also cause the prolonged effect)
Give some types of hormones. (Three mentioned in class)
-Modified amino acids
- Steroid hormone
-Peptide chains
Adrenaline (Epinephrine), and thyroid hormones called T3 and T4 are all examples of ____(1) hormones.
Modified Amino Acids hormones
Lipids, and structures based on cholesterol are examples of _____(1) hormones.
Steroid hormones.
_______(1) hormones have less than 20 amino acids while _____(2) hormones have more than 20.
(1) Peptide chain hormones
(2) Protein hormones
Hard:
How does peptide hormone cause a response in target cell(mechanism)?
What actions do receptor molecules have?(Three mentioned in class)
Peptide hormones bind to receptor molecule on target cell surface.
-Actions:
1. Open or close ion channels(ionotropic)
2. Receptor can activate a G-protein (part of second messenger system)
3. Receptor itself can be an enzyme that is activated or deactivated by the hormone.
If this hormone reaches target these actions occur. What TYPE of hormone is this?
1. Open or close ion channels(ionotropic)
2. Receptor can activate a G-protein (part of second messenger system)
3. Receptor itself can be an enzyme that is activated or deactivated by the hormone.
Peptide hormone
How does steroid hormone cause a response in target cell(mechanism)?
What actions do steroid hormones have on cell?
Steroid hormones are surrounded by nonpolar pockets of fats coated with protein (chylomicrons) that diffuse into cell through membrane. Act directly on chromosomes and effect gene expression.
This TYPE hormone effects gene expression.
Steroid hormone.
How do Modified amino acids cause a response in target cell? Since there is more than one way, give examples of Modified AA hormones and how they act on cell.
-Modified aa like epinephrine act like peptide hormone, reacting with cell surface receptors.
-Modified amino acids like T3 and T4 from thyroid acts like steroid, diffusing into cell and modifying gene expression.
Gastrin uses slow (+,-) feedback
slow positive(+) feedback.
positive or negative feedback?
-used to hold condition constant, when condition changes, causes response in opposite direction.
Negative feedback
positive or negative feedback?
-Not used to hold conditions constant, feedback system that senses changes and responds in same direction as change. (snowball effect)
Positive Feeback
How does a gland express a 'single' feedback loop.
When Positive or negative feedback of a hormone affects the control mechanism(like the gland releasing the hormone.)
gland A* secretes hormone a*. Hormone a* causes another gland B* to secrete hormone b*. Hormone b* (whether it is a + or - response) can effect hormone secretion of Gland A*. This is an example of what kind of feedback loop?
Nested Feedback loop.
Give an example of 'neural control' and how it stimulates hormone release.(use epinephrine in example)
A neural control would involve an action potential from nervous system acting on gland that releases epinephrine.
When Hormones from nervous system trigger a different hormone to be released this is called ______(1) control.
(1)Indirect neural control
If a brain hormone causes a growth hormone to be secreted which causes a thyroid hormone to be secreted, this is an example of ______ neural control(1).
Indirect neural control
How can conditions in body trigger hormone release?
UNCOUPLED from nervous system, hormones respond to concentration of chemicals in the blood like insulin and glucagon. (i.e. secreting gastrin in dig. system.)
What are three ways stimuli trigger hormone release?
-Neural control
-Indirect neural control
-Conditions in body
What is the main fuel that humans receive from Carbohydrates.
Glucose, can be used by any cell.
The liver can convert glucose into ___(1).
(1) Glycogen- a polysaccharide
Glycogen is stored in what two location?
Liver and muscles for storage.
__(1) is main storage molecule (highest energy content/gram). Moves into blood as chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles)
Fat
What are three main food molecules used in metabolism for energy?
-Carbohydrates
-Proteins
-Fats
These are energy for muscles. Deamination is source of urea.
Proteins
Protein converted to _____(1)in liver
Triglycerides or fat.
When nutrients are coming into blood from gut, this is the _____(1) state.
(1) Absorptive state
When is body in absorptive state?
When nutrients are coming into blood from gut.
Condition in body between meals, when nothing is being absorbed into blood is the _____(1)
(1) Postabsorptive state
why is Changing energy states (Absorptive and Postabsorptive) of body important for brain and how could it cause osmotic problems? (Use glucose to explain both)
-Brain only uses glucose for cell respiration, a large decrease in blood glucose is avoided.
-Osmotic problems can be caused if sugar concentration is too high.
If sugar concentration gets too high what problems could this cause? (Include Sodium and water)
If sugar conc. gets too high, sodium pumped out but glucose concentration interferes with reabsorption of water in kidneys, causing diuresis and diarrhea.
The ___(1) state reduces glucose concentration while the ____(2) state wants to increase glucose concentration.
(1) Absorptive State
(2)Postabsorptive state
In absorptive state as [glucose] increases, the pancreas secretes _____(1).
Insulin
Islets of Langerhans detects blood _____(1) and secretes ____(2) if _____(1) is high and _____(3) if ____(1) is low.
(1) Glucose concentration
(2) Insulin
(3) Glucagon
What does insulin reduce in blood?
Reduces blood glucose.
In the _____(1) state, when glucose levels are dropping, the ____(2) detect glucose concentration and release ____(3)
(1) Postabsorptive
(2) islets of langerhans (on Pancreas)
(3) Glucagon
In absorptive state, insulin acts on...(Three things mentioned in class)
-Liver
-Muscle
-Adipose tissue
Insulin causes to liver to absorb ____(1) which is then converted to glycogen for energy storage and triglycerides.
(1) Glucose
Which hormone Causes liver to absorb glucose, which is then converted to glycogen for storage and triglycerides?
Insulin
Triglycerides are sent to ___(1) where fat is stored.
(1) Adipose tissue
How does insulin effect muscles?
Causes muscle to use glucose from blood in cell respiration, store glycogen, and absorb aa for protein synthesis.
This hormone Causes muscle to use glucose form blood in cell respiration, store glycogen, and absorb aa for protein synthesis.
Insulin
What effect does insulin have on fat cells?
Causes fat cells(adipose tissue) to take up triglycerides from the liver. Fat cells also take up glucose and convert to fatty acids.
This hormone Causes fat cells(adipose tissue) to take up triglycerides from the liver. The fat cells also take up glucose and convert to fatty acids.
Insulin
this hormone is an antagonist of insulin...
glucagon
What organ secretes glucagon?
Pancreas
Glucagon acts in _____(1) state and the ___organ_(2) is the main effectee.
(1) Postabsorptive state
(2) Liver
In postabsorptive state, glycogen is converted back to glucose and secreted in blood(gluconeogenesis). Also, fatty acids are converted into ketone bodies, which can be used for energy. What hormone does this?
Glucagon