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32 Cards in this Set

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1. The initial step in urine formation in the nephron is:
a. secretion
b. pH adjustment
c. filtration
d. reabsorption
e. countercurrent multiplication
1. The initial step in urine formation in the nephron is:

c. filtration
2. Which of these is NOT needed to calculate renal plasma flow rate (RPF)?
a. concentration of PAH in interstitial fluid
b. concentration of PAH in blood plasma
c. urine flow rate (UF)
d. concentration of PAH in urine
e. both b. and c.
2. Which of these is NOT needed to calculate renal plasma flow rate (RPF)?

a. concentration of PAH in interstitial fluid
3. Which of these is the proper order that fluid would pass through the tubules of a nephron?

a. collecting duct, distal convoluted tubule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, Bowman’s capsule
b. Bowman’s capsule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, proximal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
c. loop of Henle, Bowman’s capsule, collecting duct, proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule
d. Bowman’s capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
e. proximal convoluted tubule, Bowman’s capsule, loop of Henle, collecting duct, distal convoluted tubule
3. Which of these is the proper order that fluid would pass through the tubules of a nephron?

d. Bowman’s capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct
4. Which of these occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule?
a. Na+ actively reabsorbed
b. fluid becomes highly concentrated
c. large volume of water reabsorbed
d. both a. and c.
e. both a. and b.
4. Which of these occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule?

d. both a. and c.
5. The thick part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is the active part of the countercurrent multiplier. Which of these is actively transported out of the cells of this tubule and into the interstitial fluid?
a. Cl-
b. water
c. Na+
d. urea
e. glucose
5. The thick part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle is the active part of the countercurrent multiplier. Which of these is actively transported out of the cells of this tubule and into the interstitial fluid?

c. Na+
6. Which of these is true of aldosterone?
a. acts on the distal convoluted tubule
b. increases K+ secretion
c. increases Na+ secretion
d. both b. and c.
e. both a. and b.
6. Which of these is true of aldosterone?

e. both a. and b.
7. When the collecting duct is permeable to water, the water is reabsorbed by osmosis into:
a. glomerulus
b. loop of Henle
c. peritubular capillaries
d. proximal convoluted tubule
e. Bowman’s capsule
7. When the collecting duct is permeable to water, the water is reabsorbed by osmosis into:

c. peritubular capillaries
8. Researchers discover that a drug they are testing causes a significant decrease in the body’s production of ADH (=AVP). How would this affect urine production?
a. increase urine volume, decrease urine concentration
b. increase both urine volume and concentration
c. decrease both urine volume and concentration
d. decrease both urine pH and urea concentration
e. reduce urine volume, increase urine concentration
8. Researchers discover that a drug they are testing causes a significant decrease in the body’s production of ADH (=AVP). How would this affect urine production?

a. increase urine volume, decrease urine concentration
9. Which of these does not normally stimulate a contraction in skeletal muscle but DOES stimulate contractions in smooth muscle?
a. neurotransmitter from an axon
b. hormones
c. being stretched
d. both b. and c.
e. both a. and b.
9. Which of these does not normally stimulate a contraction in skeletal muscle but DOES stimulate contractions in smooth muscle?

d. both b. and c.
10. Which of these are processes or structures that help prevent the stomach from digesting itself?
a. the distensibility that allows it to store a large volume
b. pepsin secreted as inactive pepsinogen
c. insoluble mucus
d. both b. and c.
e. none of the above
10. Which of these are processes or structures that help prevent the stomach from digesting itself?

d. both b. and c.
11. Which of these is NOT secreted by the pancrease?
a. bicarbonate ion
b. amylase
c. lipase
d. protease
e. enterokinase
11. Which of these is NOT secreted by the pancrease?

e. enterokinase
12. The action of the bile salts is to:
a. begin starch breakdown
b. emulsify lipids
c. transport lipoprotein into blood
d. split short protein chains into amino acids
e. all of the above
12. The action of the bile salts is to:

b. emulsify lipids
13. Choose the combination below that best fits the missing words in this sentence: Although __X__ can enter the cells of the lining of the small intestine passively (by diffusion), __Y__ must be pumped in using secondary active transport.
a. X = monosaccharide, Y = fat molecules
b. X = starch, Y = amino acids
c. X = fatty acids, Y = amino acids
d. X = amino acids, Y = lipid-soluble vitamins
e. X = lymph, Y = proteins
13. Choose the combination below that best fits the missing words in this sentence: Although __X__ can enter the cells of the lining of the small intestine passively (by diffusion), __Y__ must be pumped in using secondary active transport.

c. X = fatty acids, Y = amino acids
14. The hepatic portal veins connect the capillaries of the:
a. small and large intestines
b. small intestine and kidneys
c. large intestine and stomach
d. kidneys and liver
e. intestines and liver
14. The hepatic portal veins connect the capillaries of the:

e. intestines and liver
19. The follicular phase of the ovarian cycle happens at about the same time as what phase of the menstrual cycle?
a. secretory
b. luteal
c. proliferative
19. The follicular phase of the ovarian cycle happens at about the same time as what phase of the menstrual cycle?

c. proliferative
1. Which of these is true of gastrin?
a. secreted by duodenum
b. inhibits stomach acid secretion
c. target is small intestine
d. stimulates stomach acid secretion
e. both a. and c.
1. Which of these is true of gastrin?

d. stimulates stomach acid secretion
4. Negative feedback would be a useful mechanism for performing which of these functions?
a. controlling muscles during the withdrawal (pain) reflex
b. holding the blood Ca++ concentration constant
c. regulating tissue growth during a “growth spurt” (rapid childhood growth)
d. contractions of the uterus during parturition
4. Negative feedback would be a useful mechanism for performing which of these functions?

b. holding the blood Ca++ concentration constant
5. Which of these can trigger hormone release in at least some endocrine glands?
a. changing conditions in body (especially blood components)
b. direct nervous system stimulation with action potentials
c. indirect nervous system control via hormones from the brain
d. all of the above
e. only a. and b.
5. Which of these can trigger hormone release in at least some endocrine glands?

d. all of the above
6. If a person’s blood glucose level is not regulated, after a meal the person would have osmotic problems and lose lots of glucose in the urine. Hours later, what would happen?
a. continued high blood glucose would continue to cause the same problems
b. blood glucose would drop, leading to problems with cell respiration in the heart
c. blood glucose would drop, starving the brain
d. blood glucose would go back to normal levels until the next meal
6. If a person’s blood glucose level is not regulated, after a meal the person would have osmotic problems and lose lots of glucose in the urine. Hours later, what would happen?

c. blood glucose would drop, starving the brain
7. The primary hormone regulating the postabsorptive state is:
a. aldosterone
b. T3 and T4
c. glucagon
d. prolactin
7. The primary hormone regulating the postabsorptive state is:

c. glucagon
8. Which term below correctly fills in the blank in this equation?
Energy change in body = _________ + heat + storage
a. internal work
b. external work
c. fat production
d. cell respiration
8. Which term below correctly fills in the blank in this equation?
Energy change in body = _________ + heat + storage

b. external work
10. The significance of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal system is:
a. carries hormones directly from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary
b. carries hormones directly from anterior pituitary to posterior pituitary
c. carries hormones directly from anterior pituitary to hypothalamus
d. carries action potentials from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary
10. The significance of the hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal system is:

a. carries hormones directly from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary
11. Which of these hormones are regulated by both a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and a hormone from the anterior pituitary?
a. thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
b. cortisol
c. testosterone
d. all of the above
11. Which of these hormones are regulated by both a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and a hormone from the anterior pituitary?

d. all of the above
13. The action of cortisol on the metabolism of most tissues is very similar to:
a. renin
b. prolactin
c. glucagon
d. thyroid hormones
e. insulin
13. The action of cortisol on the metabolism of most tissues is very similar to:

c. glucagon
14. Which of these are not part of the renin-angiotensin system?
a. renin activates angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
b. angiotensin II stimulates secretion of aldosterone
c. angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II by blood vessel enzymes
d. angiotensin II acts on adrenal cortex
e. elevated blood K+ levels cause secretion of renin
14. Which of these are not part of the renin-angiotensin system?

e. elevated blood K+ levels cause secretion of renin
15. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes which of these processes?
a. bones demineralize, releasing Ca++
b. vitamin D is activated
c. increasing reabsorption of Ca++ in the nephrons
d. all of the above
e. only b. and c.
15. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) causes which of these processes?

d. all of the above
16. Which choice below correctly fills in the blanks in this sentence? The pituitary hormone __X__ stimulates spermatogenesis, and the pituitary hormone __Y__ stimulates production of male hormones.
a. X = GnRh, Y = testosterone
b. X = FSH, Y = LH
c. X = GnRH, Y = estrogen
d. X = LH, Y = FSH
e. X = TSH, Y = ACTH
16. Which choice below correctly fills in the blanks in this sentence? The pituitary hormone __X__ stimulates spermatogenesis, and the pituitary hormone __Y__ stimulates production of male hormones.

b. X = FSH, Y = LH
17. Peristalsis moves sperm cells from the epididymis to the urethra during:
a. emission
b. erection
c. ovulation
d. ejaculation
17. Peristalsis moves sperm cells from the epididymis to the urethra during:
a. emission
18. During the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, estrogen is produced by what structure?
a. endometrium
b. dominant follicle
c. anterior pituitary
d. corpus luteum
e. placenta
18. During the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle, estrogen is produced by what structure?

b. dominant follicle
20. Progesterone is usually described as the hormone that breaks the menstrual cycle and maintains pregnancy, but another hormone is necessary to maintain high levels of progesterone early in pregnancy. That hormone is:
a. estrogen
b. HCG
c. cortisol
d. FSH
e. oxytocin
20. Progesterone is usually described as the hormone that breaks the menstrual cycle and maintains pregnancy, but another hormone is necessary to maintain high levels of progesterone early in pregnancy. That hormone is:

b. HCG
21. Tactile stimulation of the nipple during nursing (suckling) causes secretion of which hormone that stimulates the milk let-down reflex?
a. HCG
b. prolactin
c. progesterone
d. oxytocin
21. Tactile stimulation of the nipple during nursing (suckling) causes secretion of which hormone that stimulates the milk let-down reflex?

d. oxytocin
22. Which embryonic duct system becomes the ductus deferens and associated structures?
a. Müllerian
b. Wolffian
c. pancreatic
22. Which embryonic duct system becomes the ductus deferens and associated structures?

b. Wolffian