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33 Cards in this Set

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What are the three major STDs and their causative agents?
1. Chlamydia - Chlamydia trachomatis
2. Gonorrhea - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
3. Syphilis - Treponema pallidum
Which two of the three STDs are asymptomatic in women, usually?
1. Chlamydia - Chlamydia trachomatis
2. Gonorrhea - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What two STDs have a very high rate of coinfection?
1. Chlamydia - Chlamydia trachomatis
2. Gonorrhea - Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What type of transfer is necessary for transfer of all three STDs?
direct person to person contact which includes neonate transmission
What is the most common bacterial STD in the US?
chlamydia serotype D-K
How does chlamydia present in women?
cervicitis or urethritis with a yellow mucopurulent discharge from the vagina or rectum. dysuria, vaginal bleeding, lower abdominal pain
What does chlamydia present in men?
yellow mucopurulent discharge from urethra or rectum and dysuria
How does chlamydia present in neonates?
conjunctivitis, pneumonia
What is a common male and female complication with chlamydia trachomatis infections?
conjunctivitis
What are the lab dx methods of detecting chlamydia trachomatis?
1. PCR
2. culture (used for legal reasons)
3. Giemsa staining for neonate conjuntivitis

samples MUST contain epithelial cells because the live pathogen is contained IN those cells. recall the EB/RB life cycle of chlamydia
What should you do in addition to treating chlamydia when you treat chlamydia?
treat gonorrhea. they so commonly coinfect that you should go ahead and treat.
What is Lymphogranuloma Venereum?
disease not common in US caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2, L3 that occurs in 3 stages and is charcterized by lymphatic spread of bacteria
What are the three stages of Lymphogranuloma Venereum?
1: painless genital papule
2: inguinal lymphadenopathy, buboe rupture, fever, chills, malaise, systemic
3: proctitis rectal pain, bloody purulent discharge
What is the different presentation of Lymphogranuloma Venereum in men and women?
men in stage 2 usually form buboes
women do not form buboes
How is Lymphogranuloma Venereum dx?
clinical findings. culture is insensitive. PCR for confirmation
What about Neisseria gonorrhoeae makes it an effective infector?
hundreds of different types of pili used for attachment. these are what the body makes Ab against, too!
How does gonorrhea present in men?
urethritis, purulent discharge, dysuria and can become complicated and cause epididymitis
What is unique about neisseria gonorrhoeae structure?
there is technically not an LPS, it is an LOS which is a version of LPS. LOS stimulates inflammation and release of TNF-alpha which causes the purulent discharge characteristic of gonorrhea
How does gonorrhea present in women?
cervisitis, purulent discharge, dysuria, vaginal discharge and can cause pelvic inflammatory disease or Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome if untreated
Where will gonorrhea present in neonates?
conjuntivitis
How does disseminated gooccocal infections present?
fever, migratory arthralia, purulent arthritis of distal joints, rash on extremeties
How is gonorrhea dx?
men: gram stain for purulent discharge cases. culture or PCR for all other cases
women: culture or PCR
If you treat for gonorrhea, what else should you think to treat for?
chlamydia
What are the three stages of Treponema pallidum syphilis?
1. local chancre HIGHLY infectious with spontaneous healing
2. systemic mucocutaneous rash, sore throat, headache, fever, anorexia, lymphadenopathy
3. can be latent for 3 - 30 years chronic inflammation, gummas, CV syphilis, neurosyphilis
What can congenital syphilis result in?
death or abnormalities
How is Treponema pallidum syphilis dx in the lab?
1. fluorescent antibodies
2. nontreponemal tests that detects lipids in the body per Ab detection of abnormal components that don't exist unless treponema lyses cells.
3. treponemal Ab detection
What is chancroid?
STD caused by Haemophilus ducreyi characterized by painful ulcers and buboes
How is chancroid dx?
Gram stain
clinical presentation
What is SIRS?
systemic inflammatory response symptoms caused by septicemia or other non-bacterial related causes characterized by 2 or more criteria

1. Fever of >38EC or <36EC
2. Heart rate >90 beats/min
3. Respiratory rate >20 breaths/min or a PaCO <32 mm Hg
4. WBC of >12,000/mm or <4000/mm or >10% bands 3 3
What is the primary clinical presentation of pediatric occult bacteremia?
spike in fever
What is the resolution for pediatric occult bacteremia?
can spontaneously resolve OR lead to speticemia
Where is the origin of infection for pediatric occult bacteremia for neonates, infants and older children?
1. childbirth, most commonly Group B Strep
2. infants, older children - nasopharynx infections
What are the most common causative agents for neonates, 1-2 m/o, and 3-36 mos?
neonate: Group B Strep
1-2 mos: E. coli, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Strep pneumoniae
3-36 mos: Strep. pneumonia