Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
excretion of bile

p. 165
definition: emit, discharge a greenish-yellow, bitter liquid produced by the liver to help digest food

meaning parts: ex = out of

something is independent of something else

"Alcohol has direct toxic effects, independent of the effect of malnutrition, on all body organs."


definition: separate from; (in this context, the toxic effects of alcohol on organs are totally separate from the toxic effects on organs of the malnutrition that usually accompanies alcoholism.)


"The body confers special status on [alcohol]."

p. 383
definition: gives, bestows, give the honor of something

meaning parts: don't really help


"Unlike foods, which require digestion, the tiny alcohol molecules are all ready to be absorbed; they can diffuse right through the walls of the empty stomach and reach the brain within a minute.

p. 383
definition: to flow through and afterwards spread out

meaning parts: dis = dif = out, away; fus = flow; (flow out and away)


p. 387
definition: causing cancer

meaning parts: carcin = cancer; gen = generating, producing, causing

antidiuretic hormone

"...alcohol depresses the brain's production of antidiuretic hormone"

p. 384
definition: a hormone that keeps the body from losing too much liquid in the form of urine.

meaning parts: anti = against; dia = through; ure = urine (against urine go through you and being quickly discharged)

"The capillaries that surround the digestive tract merge into veins that carry the alcohol-laden blood to the liver."

p. 385

definition: fine, hair-like blood vessels that allow the interchange of materials

meaning parts: capill = hair

metabolize, metabolism

"The liver makes and maintains two sets of equipment for metabolizing alcohol; alcoholdehydrogenase (ADH)...[and] MEOS."

p. 386
definition: in living things, the chemical processes needed to break down some substances to obtain energy and to create others that are needed to maintain life.

word parts: meta = change


high fat snacks help [slow the absorption of alcohol] because they slow peristalsis, keeping the alcohol in the stomach longer.

p. 383
definition: wave-like muscular contractions of the intestines that push food forward

peri = around

"The synthesis of fatty acids also accelerates as a result of the livers exposure to alcohol."

p. 387
definition: combining different things to create something new

meaning parts: syn = together; tith = to put; (to put together)

own sentence/new context:


"Nutrient deficiencies are...a virtually inevitable consequence of alcohol abuse."

p. 389
definition: almost 100% or almost totally

meaning parts: don't help

own sentence/new context:


"...a reliable source tentatively ranks daily human exposure to ethanol [another name for alcohol] as high in relation to other possible carcinogenic hazards."

p. 387
definition: holding back 100% approval, conditional or provisional approval

own sentence/other context: