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82 Cards in this Set

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What Layer does a Repeater Function?
Layer 1
What does a Repeater do? (2)
- Takes Signal, Cleans it up and sends it out crisp and clear.
- Prevents Attenuation.
What is Attenuation?
Degration of Singal Clarity
What is an "Amplifier" on Analog Networks? (2)
- Device that Boost Signals
- must keep original shape of singal (includes noise boost)
What does a Hub do?
- Ties several network cables together to create a link between different stations.
What is a "hub" also know as?
Multi-port Repeater
what is an active hub?
plugged into electrical power and amps signal.
what is a passive hub?
not plugged into electrical power and no signal amp.
What is a Topology?
the Pysical layout of the network.
What Layer does a hub operate at?
Layer 1
Advantages of Hubs & Repeaters (3)
- Extends network distance.
- do not affect network performance.
- can connect multiple networks via different media.
Disadvantages of Hubs & Repeaters (3)
- cannot connect different network arcitectures.
- do not reduce network traffic.
- do not segment network.
Segment
creating logical or physical divisions in a network.
What are Wireless Access Points used for?
provide cell-based areas where laptops & PDA's can connect to a network.
Where do Wireless Access Points operate in the OSI model?
Layer 1 & 2
What is the wireless standard for IEEE?
802.11
What is the frequency for 802.11?
2.4 GHz
What is the frequency for 802.11b?
2.4 GHz
What is the frequency for 802.11a?
5 GHz
What is the frequency for 802.11g?
2.4 Ghz
What Layer does a Repeater Function?
Layer 1
What does a Repeater do? (2)
- Takes Signal, Cleans it up and sends it out crisp and clear.
- Prevents Attenuation.
What is Attenuation?
Degration of Singal Clarity
What is an "Amplifier" on Analog Networks? (2)
- Device that Boost Signals
- must keep original shape of singal (includes noise boost)
What does a Hub do?
- Ties several network cables together to create a link between different stations.
What is a "hub" also know as?
Multi-port Repeater
what is an active hub?
plugged into electrical power and amps signal.
what is a passive hub?
not plugged into electrical power and no signal amp.
What is a Topology?
the Pysical layout of the network.
What Layer does a hub operate at?
Layer 1
Advantages of Hubs & Repeaters (3)
- Extends network distance.
- do not affect network performance.
- can connect multiple networks via different media.
Disadvantages of Hubs & Repeaters (3)
- cannot connect different network arcitectures.
- do not reduce network traffic.
- do not segment network.
Segment
creating logical or physical divisions in a network.
What are Wireless Access Points used for?
provide cell-based areas where laptops & PDA's can connect to a network.
Where do Wireless Access Points operate in the OSI model?
Layer 1 & 2
What is the wireless standard for IEEE?
802.11
What is the frequency for 802.11?
2.4 GHz
What is the frequency for 802.11b?
2.4 GHz
What is the frequency for 802.11a?
5 GHz
What is the frequency for 802.11g?
2.4 Ghz
"ESS" within Wireless
Extended Service Set
- Allows roaming due to multi access points
"BSS" within Wireless
Basic Service Set
- Single access pint available
WEP (2)
Wired Equivalent Privacy
- Lower-level encryption
- RC4 Algorithm

For Home
WPA (2)
Wi-Fi protected Access
- Higher Level Encryption
- TKIP Algorithm

For Home and Small Office
WPA2 (2)
Wi-Fi Protected Access V2
- Highest Level Encryption
- AES algorithm

For Home and Small Office
802.11i
IEEE standard based on WPA2
- Highest level encryption
- AES algorithm

For Business
2 advantages of Wireless
- Work anywhere within range of service
- Extend network w/ out running wire
what is Network Segmentation?
The breakdown of a network into smaller groups or "segments"
What Layer does a Bridge Operate at in OSI model?
Layer 2
what does a Bridge do?
filter traffic between segment by examing destination MAC address.
What happens when data enters a Bridge?
It either forwards it or discards it. It will only froward if MAC address is on other segment.
what do Bridges do with broadcast traffic?
Always forwards
How to Bridges decide to forward data?
reviews destination MAC address in "Bridging Table". If MAC is not in table, it is forwarded.
What is a "Source-Routing Bridge"?
A bridge that relies on the source of the fram to provide routing direction
What is a "Transparent Bridge"?
AKA "Learning Bridge"
- A bridge that builds table well frames come in
What is a "Translation Bridge"?
A bridge that connect different network architectures.
example: Ethernet to TokenRing
Advantages of a Bridge (3)
- Extend Network
- Segment Network
- Connect network via different media or architectures
Disadvantages of Bridges (3)
- Slower then Repeaters
- Do not filter broadcast traffic
- More expensive then repeater
What is a "broadcast storm"?
- 2 or more stations transmit excessive broadcast traffic.
What Layer of the OSI model to "Switches" operate at?
Layer 2
What do Switches do?
- Reduce the number of frames transmitted over entire network by opening virtual circuits for connections.
what is"Microsegmentation"?
In reference to a Switch, it is the process of opening a virtual circuit between source and destination so they can communicate at full bandwidth.
What are the Advantages of Switches? (3)
- Increase Bandwidth
- Increase Performance
- Create collision domain on each connection
What are the Disadvantages of Switches? (2)
- More expensive then a Bridge
- Connectivity problems are difficult to trace
What is a Gateway?
Translates between different protocol suites.

example: software on Windows Server '03 os Macintosh computers can connect.
What Layer of the OSI model does a Router operate at?
Layer 3, Network
What do Routers do? (2)
- Filter & Control traffic on LAN/WAN while connecting multiple segments & networks together.
- Create collision domains
what is an "internetwork" when referring to routers?
a Network connected by multiple routers
How to Routers filter traffic?
by the Logical Address
How to Routers handle broadcast traffic?
They do NOT forward it.
Advantages of a Router (3)
- Connect different network architectures
- Choose best path to transfer
- Reduce traffice with broadcast and collision domains
Disadvantages of a Router (3)
- only work with routable network protocols
- More expensive
- Slower then other devices
What is Ethernet and discuss the history?
- It is a Network Access Method or Media Access Method.
- U-Hawaii, Xerox in 1980's
What is the IEEE standard for Ethernet?
802.3
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multi Access w/ Collision Detection
- prevents data packets from colliding
what is IFG and IPG?
InterFrame Gap/ InterPacket Gap
- When collision occurs, the network traffic is stopped for 9.6 micro sec.
What is Fast Ethernet?
- 100BaseT
- runs at 100mbps
IEEE standard to Fast Ethernet?
802.3u
What is Gigabit Ethernet?
- 1000BaseX
- runs at 1000mbps
IEEE standards for Gigabit Ethernet?
802.3z and 802.3ab
Half-Duplex
Cannot send and receive at the same time
Full-Duplex
Can send and receive at the same time