Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
lymph node drains tonsil
tears pass through from punctum to nose?
canaliculus, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, inferior meatus, posterior nares
purpose of posterior cricoarytenoids?
open and separate vocal cords
two branches from ext. carotid A supplying maxillary area
maxillary artery, facial artery
nerve and ganglion to lacrimal gland
VII facial – pterygo-palatine
nerve and ganglion to constrictor pupillae
oculomotor III – ciliary
nerve and ganglion to sublingual
VII facial – submandibular
nerve and ganglion to parotid
IX glossopharyngeal – otic
function of lateral pterygoid
open jaw, protract jaw, move jaw forward
superior laryngeal internal branch innervates
mucosa above vocal cords
superior laryngeal external branch innervates
cricothyroid – tightens cords
lymph from below glottis (true cords) goes where
lymph from above vocal cords goes where
superior cervical
nerve to posterior cricoaryteniodeus
recurrent laryngeal
2 cranial nerves may send fibres to post. cricoaryteniodeus
X + XI
larynx lymph to where
pre tracheal
what to avoid if inserting tympanostomy tube
chorda tympanic nerve
embryonic cells of ear ossicles
neural crest cells
if ulnar nerve severed, movements effected at wrist, DIP
wrist:flexion, adduction, ulnar deviation, DIP:flexion
long term consequences of scaphoid fracture
non union, pain, avascular necrosis, arthritis, collapse
artery&nerve just below humerus anatomical head
axillary nerve, humeral circumflex artery
thumb movements effected if median nerve severed
abduction, flexion, opposition
nerve to cricothyroid?
external laryngeal
which muscle abducts vocal cord
posterior crocarytenoid
nerve to posterior cricoarytenoid?
recurrent laryngeal
sensory to mucous membrane of nose
tumour near external occipital protruberance – lymph path?
occipital nodes
hole of sphenoidal sinus
sphenoethmoidal recess
ganglion of cellbodies innervating dilator pupillae
superior cervical ganglion
postganglionic sympathetic to sweatglands in forehead how
sup cerv.gang, com. carotid, ext carotid, facial, supraorbital
nasopharyngeal tumour trotters triad
eustachian tube-deafness, v3 pain, soft palate weak
aneurism presses on III nerve. effects?
down and out, dilated pupil, ptosis
function of internal laryngeal nerve
sensory to mucosa above cords
which sinuses open to middle meatus
ethmoid, maxillary, frontal
where does maxillary artery leave neck
pterygomaxillary fissure/pterygopalatine fossa
what movements effected if radial nerve severed
ext, abd and add of wrist, extension of MCP joints
which nerves carry postsympathetic efferent fibres to submandibular salivary gland
facial nerve, lingual nerve, chorda tympani
muscle of mastication that closes jaw
masseter or temporalis
muscle of mastication that pulls jaw forward
lateral pterygoid
what cranial nerve does lingual arise from
which cranial nerve supplies sensory fibres: soft palate
V2, IX
nerve normally lies on anterior surface of scalenus anterior
If superior cervical ganglion is damaged, what results
double vision
nasal cavities
view of C1,C2 from inside mouth
ondontoid view
on CT scans – spenoid sinus versus ethmoid sinus
open versus lots of compartments
in coronal ct scan, pterygoids are where?
just lateral to sphen. sinus, medial to mandible
slide in front of foramen magnum, points to dens
clivus (can see on sagittal films)
orbicularis oculi purpose
distributes tears, cleans grit off eyeball, (stops ulceration)
if facial nerve palsy, what may happen to eyeball
muscle with longest name in the body
levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
ulnar nerve lesion in guyons canal – effect cutaneous?
no. dorsal/palmar cutaneous exit nerve before guyons
ulnar nerve innervates
flexor carpi ulnaris, dorsal, palmar interosseus, ½ profundus, deep br. to adductor pollicis, hypothenar, palmaris brevis, ½ lumbricals
median nerve innervates
½ profundus, superficialis, thenar musc, pronators, ½ lumbricals, palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis
musculocutaneous innervates
brachialis, biceps brachii, coracobrachialis
radial nerve innervates
brachioradialis, triceps brachii, extensors: carpi radialis longus/brevis, ulnaris, digiti minimi, digitorum, indicis, pollicis long/brev, abductor pollicis, supinator,
radial nerve gone – fix?
palmaris longus tendon -> extensor pollicis brevis, flex. superficialis tendon -> extensor digitorum (get both thumb and finger flexion back. (won’t miss superficialis/palmaris)
particular place radial nerve may be damaged (plus others)
radial tunnel through supinator heads
place ulnar nerve might be damaged (besides med.epicon.)
guyons canal
need interossei for
external ear includes and is covered with
auricle, ext. aud. meatus, tymp. memb – SKIN
middle ear includes and is covered with
cavity, eus. tube, mastoid antrum, ossicles: mucous memb (ossicles periosteum plus mm)
inner ear includes, covered with
osseus/memb labyrinth – bone/mucous
volkmans contracture
supracondylar fracture, ischemia, scarring, scar shortens – pain gets worse – trying to stretch muscle
why supracondylar fractures in 6yr olds
ligaments lax at 6, hyperextension
loss of blood supp. after fracture how
during injury, reducing fracture, comp. synd., surgery
5 P’s compartment synd
pain, pallor, pulselessness, puffiness, paralysis
used to remove pain in term. ill patients – cut through lateral spinothalmic tract: can potentially damage lateral corticospinal tract, causing weakness to trunk, lower limbs
brachial plexus injury how
head flexed, shoulder depressed
porters tip injury
C567, medially rotated arm, extended, wrist flexed, pronated forearm
in axillary sheath
brachial plexus and axillary artery
injection point – axillary sheath
interscalene groove
other landmarks for injecting axillary sheath
coracobrachialis, axillary artery
5 pot. problems injecting ax. sheath
artery punctured, bleeds into sheath: compression, pneumothorax, diffusion:phrenic, deinnervate diaphragm, hoarseness if diffuses to vagus, horners if diff. to symp.
brachial plexus ripped off sp. cord # nerves to fix with
fixing 120,000 with 4100 motor,3200sensory
last ditch fixes for ripped off brach. plexus
11 from SCM – deltoid. Traps, Rhombs,Levator scap – musculocutaneous. supraacromial/supraclav- median
digital anaesthetic danger why
volume can crush, vasoconstrictor can fibrose, cuts off circ, finger dies.
other causes of carpal tunnel
anything that takes up room- lunate dislocate, extensive lumbricals, swelling, endocrine factors, trauma, rheumatoid disease
carpal tunnel symptoms/treatment
pain/numbness/clumsiness, surgery
injury to upper plexus – means
T1 may be intact – intrinsic hand musc. okay
injury to lower plexus means
SS nerve may be intact – some shoulder musc.
nerve used for nerve grafts
sural nerve (using schwannoma cells, nerves resprout through the ‘pathways’ provided)
loss of median nerve
no thumb opposition, no pronation, only weak flexion, ulnar deviation – sensory loss to 3 ½ digits
maximal contact with objects achieved how
short fingers/thumb, slight ulnar fingers rotation, slight arch to metacarpals
maximum surf contact why
minimize force per unit area of skin
3 areas where problems can occur in transmission of muscle activities through tendons
motor (muscle), transmission (tendons/joints), application (skin/pulp)
if radial nerve damaged
wrist drop – porters tip injury
fixing wrist drop
pronator teres moved from flexor to extensor side, tendon split and put to each side of hand
referred pain to ear from where
V1,2 – sinusitis, V2,3 teeth, V3 TMJoint, V3 tongue cancer, IX tongue cancer, IX tonsilitis
fracture of petrous bone – results
VII – facial weakness, VIII deafness, dizziness; middle ear: deafness/blood, cochlea: deafness, semicirc. canals: dizziness, unconsciousness, epithelial tear: blood, tymp. memb. tear = blood
if bleeding from ear?
petrous bone fracture
tic douleureaux
abrupt, brief, stabbing pains V3, triggered, no sensory loss
tic douloureaux fix
gangliolysis of V3, or microvascular decompression
fall on the outstretched arm problems
fractured clavicle, shoulder subluxation, glenohumeral dislocation, humeral fracture, supracondylar humeral fracture, elbow dislocation, colles fracture, wrist dislocation, scaphoid fracture, lunate dislocation
lunate fracture problem
may strip periosteum – avascular necrosis
breathlessness if swollen thyroid?
presses tracheal rings
thyroid lymph drainage
pre-tracheal paratracheal
diff. betw. subdural and extradural hematoma
non-acute vs. acute (extradural occurs quickly)
tests for trigeminal
forehead, cheek, chin
gag reflex tests
X and IX
test for XI
raise arm overhead, look up, turn head side-side
otitis media symptoms
deafness, warmth, vomitting. through otoscope, no cone
tympanostomy tube does what
reduces severity not frequency of problems w/ otitis media
eustachian tube – is normally?
closed, actively opened during swallowing: tensor palati. kids tubes may be closed – cartilage smaller, less strong, palati inefficient pre-puberty
most common tumour origin in larynx
larynx lymphatics
sparse. everything above glottis-deep cervical. below: pretracheal. good that where tumour may be, fewer lymph.
why pterygo-palatine called ‘hayfever’ ganglia
dist. point for nose, nasopharynx, orbit, palate, upper teeth
mastoid air cells extensive: infection spread potential from middle ear: chronic infection, extradural abcess, can lead to meningitis, temporal lobe abcess. veins/sinuses transport infection
circle of willis aneurisms
more in women than men, sudden devastating headache, may be congenital. blood in sub arach. space