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18 Cards in this Set

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What are the four general rules for effective parasites?
1) don't kill the host
2) must smaller than the host
3) have single definitive host
4) parasites are symbiotic
What general negative effects do hosts endure?
1) mechanical injury
2) tissue ingestion
3) toxic metabolic products
4) depriving host of nutrients
Ectoparasite vs. endoparasites
ectoparasites exist on the outside of a host, endoparasites exist internal the host
obligate parasite
lives part of it lifecycle in an animal, usually has 2 hosts within a lifecycle
intermediate host, definitive host, paratenic host
intermediate = growth
definitive = reproduction
paratenic = transport only
Facultative parasite
not normally a parasite, but inadvertently ends up in an environment in which it must become a parasite to survive. ex. "Naeglaria" (kids in the field pool that died in 3 days), "Micronema"
Accidental/incidental Parasite
parasite that ends up in the wrong host and can survive for a short amount of time.
Commensal, mutualism, parasitism
types of symbiosis - both benefit but not necessary, both benefit and necessary, one benefits and one is harmed
What is the benefit of cold weather regarding parasites?
cold will cleanse. it will kill parasites.
Caduceus
mistaken sign for medicine. staff - authority, wings - fluidity, snake - wisdom. eventually was symbol for Hermes following people which eventually became representative of an occult
Rod of Asclepius
the true symbol of medicine, which stands for authority and rebirth
religious related parasitism
drink wine, not water because water is unclean; don't eat unclean animals like pigs because it will make you sick.
crunchy pork
doubly infected pork from Trichinella spiralis (roundworm) in gut and in muscle. also pork can be infected by Taenia solium (tapeworm)
how many people die each year from parasites?
60m
Francesco Redi
grandfather of parasitology in 1600s described 108 species, claimed that parenthood was a universal concept
Karl Asmund Rudolphi
early 1800s, father of helminthological, collected and classified all known parasites
Kushenmeister
mid 1800s, showed that parasites can have interspecieated hosts rabbits -> dogs, pig meat -> humans
Leukart
1800s showed insects can be intermediate hosts