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41 Cards in this Set

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vioxx
recalled due to cardiovascular complications
benefits of oral contraceptives?
decreased risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer
risks of oral contraceptives
1) venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism
2) CVD, ischemic stroke (increased w/smoking)
3) hepatic adenomas
why are estrogen and progestin used in combination?
with unopposed estrogen treatment, there is an increase in endometrial hyperplasia and cancer
risk of hormone replacement therapy in women (estrogen and progestin)
1) breast cancer
2) same as oral contraceptives
3) myocardial infarcs
4) gallbaldder disease
acetaminophen toxicity causes what symptoms?
GI toxin: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hepatic necrosis with ALT and AST elevations (because serious overdosage affects liver)
aspirin/acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) acute toxicity signs?
respiratory alkalosis followed by metabolic acidosis
aspirin/acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) chronic toxicity signs?
> 3g/day
ulcers, seizures, coma, GI issues, CNS issues
why are there issues with bleeding and aspirin?
aspirin is an irreversible inhibitory agent against platelet cyclooxygenase
carbon monoxide is produced by?
burning gas, oil, coal, wood, natural gas
danger of carbon monoxide?
odorless and colorless
early sign of CO poisoning?
cherry red skin
symptoms of CO poisoning?
headache, dizziness, impaired motor control, coma -> death
action of CO poisoning?
binding hemoglobin with higher affinity than oxygen
source of radon?
natural decay product of uranium
radon relative to lung cancer?
second biggest cause of lung cancer
aliphatic hydrocarbon source?
solvents, dry cleaning agents
what causes lead poisoning?
high affinity for sulfhydryl groups so competes with Ca ions
two problematic volatile organic compounds found in industrial settings and are poisonous?
aliphatic hydrocarbons - carcinogenic, CNS depression, nausea
aromatic hydrocarbons - leukemia, aplastic anemia
how is lead introduced to the body and why is it problematic?
inhaltion, ingestion, t1/2 = 30 years, 80 - 85% of absorbed lead is taken up by bones in children
area of effects of lead exposure
brain, blood, nerves, kidney, gi, bones
what cancer is caused by arsenic and where is it found?
skin cancer - squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma
lung and liver cancer

found in herbicides
what problems are caused by oranocholines (DDT) and where is it found?
easily absorbed through skin, GI, lungs, so causes neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

found in herbicides
what problems are caused by organophosphates and where is it found?
absorbed through skin, GI, lungs, irreversibly inhibits cholinesterase
symptoms: DUMBELS - diaphoresis, diarrhea, urination, miosis, bradycardia, bronchorrhea, bronchospasm, emesis, lacrimation, salivation
fluids come out of their body everywhere, highly neurotoxic

found in herbicides
tx of organophosphate toxicity?
atropine, 2-PAM
what are the two types of radiation injury?
1) ionization - short wavelength, high frequency - x-rays, gamma rays, cosmic rays
2) nonionizing - long wavelength, low frequency - electricity, microwaves, UV, infrared
what causes the carcinogenic properties of ionizing radiation?
alters DNA structure, whereas nonionizing does not
Gray (gy)
a dosage unit of ionizing radiation.
> 10 Gy -> necrosis
> 1-2 Gy -> kills proliferating cells
< 1 Gy -> DNA damage
how much Gy does radiation therapy push?
30 to 70 Gy
abrasion
superficial epidermal injury. skin is rubbed away
laceration
deeper skin injury from blunt trauma. tissue bridging differentiates from incised wound
contusion
bruise, blood vessel damaged after injury, skin is still intact
how do you qualify a thermal burn?
1) depth of burn (skin layers involved)
2) %BSA (body surface area) involved
3) internal injuries from inhalation
what are the 2 types of thermal burn layers quality?
1) full thickness - epidermis and dermis is lost
2) partial thickness - at least deep portions of the dermis is maintained
what is the rule of nines?
this is a percentage of sections of the body used to determine %BSA in a burn victim.

ex: front chest = 9%
front abdomen = 9%
groin = 1%
what is frostbite
long term constriction caused by body keeping core warm rather than preserve apendages that will cause ischemia
how are 1st, 2nd, 3rd degree burns qualified?
1st - epidermis
2nd - part of dermis
3rd - all of dermis and epidermis
cycad flour
phytotoxin containing cycasin that may produce ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) if injested
aflatoxin B1
produced by fungus that can cause heptocellular carcinoma
ciguatoxin
occurs in tropical fish after they ingest dinoflagellates. humans ingest fish, results in paresthesias, paresis, vomiting, diarrhea
gunshot wounds
long range - clean shot
short range - see black discoloration because of smoke, gunpowder, heat